History of Tourism

The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” was open to the public in the sixth century BC in Babylon, while the Egyptians held many religious festivals attracting not only the devout, but many who came to see the famous buildings and works of art in the cities. The local towns accommodated tourists by providing services such as: vendors of food and drink, guides, hawkers of souvenirs, touts and prostitutes. 

From around the same date, Greek tourists travelled to visit the sites of healing gods. Because the independent city-states of ancient Greece had no central authority to order the construction of roads, most of these tourists travelled by water, hence seaports prospered. 
The lands of the Mediterranean Sea produced a remarkable evolution in travel. People travel for trade, commerce, religious purposes, festivals, medical treatment, or education developed at an early date. 

Guidebooks became available as early as the fourth century BC, covering a vast area of destinations, i.e. Athens, Sparta and Troy. Pausanias, a Greek travel writer, produced a noted “description of Greece” between AD 160 and 180, which, in its critical evaluation of facilities and destinations, acted as a model for later writers. Advertisements, in the form of signs directing visitors to wayside inns, are also known from this period. However, under Romans rule is where international travel became first important. With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with the seas safe from piracy due to the Roman patrols, conditions favoring travel had arrived. Roman coinage was acceptable everywhere, and Latin was the common language. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, and Troy, Egypt and from the third century AD, to the Holy Land. 

Domestic tourism also flourished within the Roman Empire. Second homes were built by the wealthy within easy travelling distance...

2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia
Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.

600 BC and thereafter
The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.
In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.

500 BC, the Greek civilisation
The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers' needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.
This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds' first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire
With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.
Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages
Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.
Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.
Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.
Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature.

The Grand Tour
From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a 'Grand Tour' accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas
The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.
In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts
The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point

Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west
 The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century 
·        Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.
·        Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.
·        The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.
·        The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.
·        The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.
·        Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.
·        Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.
·        The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.
·        The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.
·        The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.

Tourism in the Twentieth Century

The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west.  The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.

The birth of air travel and after
The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircrafts and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.

A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.

Contributions of Entrepreneurship in Society

Entrepreneurs have much to give to society. Their contribution to the welfare of society is of high order. A business person apart from making money for him or herself also helps the society in many ways financially and socially.
Financially, of course the respective country benefits by the business carried out by entrepreneurs. At the same time many of the welfare activities of the businessman improve the living conditions of the people of that particular society.

How does an entrepreneur help the society?

Donations – A business person donates a lot of money for charity purposes. From his or her earnings, he or she would like to help the downtrodden and try to improve their living conditions.

Charitable institutions – A businessman or woman sets up various educational, medical and vocational training institutions to provide the less privileged with benefits which they normally cannot afford. The fees may be less or waived in the case of a meritorious student. Hospitals are also run by these charitable institutions.

Sponsorship – Many business people sponsor a candidate for higher education or fund a child in an orphanage. In fact, many orphanages are backed by these business people. Scholarships are provided to a poor student for him or her to avail of better educational opportunities.

Welfare programs – A businessman or woman financially contributes to various welfare programs, like helping the blind, orphans, widow etc. In times of crisis, they help by donating items such as blankets, clothes, medicines etc.

Advisors to respective government – Many successful business people participate in government activities in order to promote the well-being of the citizens. The government often seeks their advice on certain social and economic activities.

Business is essential for the progress of a nation. A successful businessman or woman is an asset to the society. He or she can contribute to the wellbeing of a society in several ways that improve the living conditions of the people.

Break Even Analysis


If you can accurately forecast your costs and sales, conducting a break even analysis is a matter of simple math. A company has broken even when its total sales or revenues equal its total expenses. At the break even point, no profit has been made, nor have any losses been incurred. This calculation is critical for any business owner, because the break even point is the lower limit of profit when determining margins.

Defining Costs: - There are several types of costs to consider when conducting a break even analysis, so here’s a refresher on the most relevant.

·         Fixed costs: These are costs that are the same regardless of how many items you sell. All start-up costs, such as rent, insurance and computers, are considered fixed costs since you have to make these outlays before you sell your first item.

·         Variable costs: These are recurring costs that you absorb with each unit you sell. For example, if you were operating a greeting card store where you had to buy greeting cards from a stationary company for $1 each, then that dollar represents a variable cost. As your business and sales grow, you can begin appropriating labor and other items as variable costs if it makes sense for your industry.

Setting a Price: - This is critical to your break even analysis; you can’t calculate likely revenues if you don’t know what the unit price will be. Unit price refers to the amount you plan to charge customers to buy a single unit of your product.

Psychology of Pricing: Pricing can involve a complicated decision-making process on the part of the consumer, and there is plenty of research on the marketing and psychology of how consumers perceive price. Take the time to review articles on pricing strategy and the psychology of pricing before choosing how to price your product or service.

Pricing Methods: There are several different schools of thought on how to treat price when conducting a break even analysis. It is a mix of quantitative and qualitative factors. If you’ve created a brand new, unique product, you should be able to charge a premium price, but if you’re entering a competitive industry, you’ll have to keep the price in line with the going rate or perhaps even offer a discount to get customers to switch to your company.

One common strategy is "cost-based pricing", which calls for figuring out how much it will cost to produce one unit of an item and setting the price to that amount plus a predetermined profit margin. This approach is frowned upon since it allows competitors who can make the product for less than you to easily undercut you on price. Another method, referred to by David G. Bakken of Harris Interactive as "price-based costing" encourages business owners to "start with the price that consumers are willing to pay (when they have competitive alternatives) and whittle down costs to meet that price." That way if you encounter new competition, you can lower your price and still turn a profit. This presentation from Harris Interactive offers a further explanation of these methods, and offers an overview of common pricing methods.

The formula: To conduct breakeven analysis, take your fixed costs, divided by your price, minus your variable costs. As an equation, this is defined as:

Breakeven Point = Fixed Costs / (Unit Selling Price - Variable Costs)

This calculation will let you know how many units of a product you’ll need to sell to break even. Once you’ve reached that point, you’ve recovered all costs associated with producing your product (both variable and fixed). Above the break even point, every additional unit sold increases profit by the amount of the unit contribution margin, which is defined as the amount each unit contributes to covering fixed costs and increasing profits. As an equation, this is defined as:

Unit Contribution Margin = Sales Price - Variable Costs

Recording this information in a spreadsheet will allow you to easily make adjustments as costs change over time, as well as play with different price options and easily calculate the resulting break even point. You could use a program such as Excel’s Goal Seek, if you wanted to give yourself a goal of a certain profit, say $1 million, and then work backwards to see how many units you would need to sell to hit that number.

Limitations: - It is important to understand what the results of your break even analysis are telling you. If, for example, the calculation reports that you would break even when you sold your 500th unit, decide whether this seems feasible. If you don’t think you can sell 500 units within a reasonable period of time (dictated by your financial situation, patience and personal expectations), then this may not be the right business for you to go into. If you think 500 units is possible but would take a while, try lowering your price and calculating and analyzing the new break even point. 

Alternative tourism

Alternative tourism can be defined as ‘forms of tourism that set out to be consistent with natural, social and community values and which allow both hosts and guests to enjoy positive and worthwhile interaction and shared experiences’. It involves traveling to relatively remote, undisturbed natural areas with the objective of admiring, studying and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals and cultural attributes. It also considers the conservation of the environment and sustenance and well-being of local people. Further, clients are expected to be individuals. Accommodations are locally owned and small-scale. In general, alternative tourism is an alternative to the mass standard tourism as philosophy and attitude. The main accent in these travels is the preserved natural environment, authentic atmosphere and cuisine, and local traditions. The alternative forms of tourism combine tourist products or separate tourist services, different from the mass tourism by means of supply, organization and the human resource involved. These are rural, ecotourism, adventure (biking, horseback riding, snowshoeing, ski mountaineering, rafting, diving, caving, climbing), thematic tourism – connected with the cultural and historical heritage, the esoteric, religion, wine, traditional cuisine, ethnography and traditional music and handicrafts.

Features of Alternative Tourism

- The attempted preservation, protection and enhancement of the quality of the resource base which is fundamental to tourism itself.

- The fostering and active promotion of development, in relation to additional visitor attractions and infrastructure, with roots in the specific locale and developed in ways that complement local attributes.

- The endorsement of infrastructure, hence economic growth, when and where it improves local conditions and not where it is destructive or exceeds the carrying capacity of the natural environment or the limits of the social environment whereby the quality of community life is adversely affected.

- Tourism which attempts to minimize its impact upon the environment, is ecologically sound, and avoids the negative impacts of many large-scale tourism developments undertaken in areas that have not previously been developed.

- An emphasis on not only ecological sustainability, but also cultural sustainability. That is, tourism which does not damage the culture of the host community, encouraging a respect for the cultural realities experienced by the tourists through education and organized 'encounters'.

Resource Management - Basics

A resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced. Typically resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth, meeting needs or wants, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants.

Definition of Economic Resources
Economic resources are the factors used in producing goods or providing services. In other words, they are the inputs that are used to create things or help you provide services. Economic resources can be divided into human resources, such as labor and management, and nonhuman resources, such as land, capital goods, financial resources, and technology.

Importance of Economic Resources
An economy is a system of institutions and organizations that either help facilitate or are directly involved in the production and distribution of goods and services. Economic resources are the inputs we use to produce and distribute goods and services. The precise proportion of each factor of production will vary from product to product and from service to service, and the goal is to make the most effective use of the resources that maximizes output at the least possible cost. Misapplication or improper use of resources may cause businesses, and even entire economies, to fail.

Resource Management

Definition : The process of using a company's resources in the most efficient way possible. These resources can include tangible resources such as goods and equipment, financial resources, and labor resources such as employees.

Resource management is the efficient and effective deployment and allocation of an organization’s resources when and where they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology. Resource management includes planning, allocating and scheduling of resources to tasks, which typically include manpower, machines, money and materials. Resource management has an impact on schedules and budgets as well as resource leveling and smoothing.
In order to effectively manage resources, organizations must have data on resource demands forecasted by time period into the future, the resource configurations that will be required to meet those demands and the supply of resources, again forecasted into the future. Forecasts should be as far out as is reasonable. Resource leveling, as it relates to inventory, is a resource management technique aimed at keeping the stock of resources on hand level, reducing both excess inventories and shortages. In project management, resource leveling is scheduling decisions, which are driven by resource management concerns, such as limited resource availability. As opposed to leveling, resource smoothing may not delay the project completion date, only particular activities within their float.
Many organizations use professional services automation software tools to make resource management tasks more efficient and effective. The automated tools may include time-sheet software and employee time tracking software, which calculate skill sets, experience and workload in selecting the most skilled employee in an organization to handle any specific project. This enables the organization to forecast future staffing requirements prior to project implementation.


Architecture of India : Different styles

Architecture of India India is the home of one of the most ancient civilization. The heritage of India is almost 5000 years old. Previously Hinduism was the main religion in this country but gradually comes Muslims, Buddhists, Jain and Christians and they helped this country to become the motherland of a proud heritage. India is truly a land of monuments. With this flow of civilization we can find different temples, mosque and other monuments throughout the country. The monumental heritage of India dates back to 3500 BC to 1500 BC, where one of the most extensive urban civilizations in the history of man grew up in the Valley of Indus River and its tributaries. This civilization consisted of a network of cities spread over an area of a million square miles. Mohenjo Daro and Harappa (both now in Pakistan) were the most important among several walled cities renowned for their well planned streets, covered drains, great baths. The buildings of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa are the oldest examples of subcontinental architecture. Other examples are Kalibangan at Rajasthan, Lothal in Gujrat and Ropar in Punjab. The monuments of India could be divided in few categories. HINDU ARCHITECTURE Hinduism is the oldest religion which prevailed throughout India. We can find heritage monuments of Hinduism every nuke and corner of the country. Hindu temples are mainly two types – 1. Mandap shaped and 2. Meru shaped. Mandap shaped temples are largely found in south India in which the temples are built as a tent. Meru shaped temples are mainly found in central and northern India. The temple is built in the shape of meru – the sacred mountain. The top is pointed towards to the space representing moksha. Both the types follow a basic structure which is almost same throughout India. The Parts of Temple. Gate (Gopuram):- in every temple we find four gates in four directions. The main gate always faces towards east or west. These gates are decorated with beautiful sculptures. Platform (Mandap):- it is the platform in front of the main part of the temple with numerous pillars supporting the ceiling. The doorway slab: - it is the boundary line between the platform and Garbha Griha. Garbha Griha: - it is the main part of the temple built in the center of premises. The front wall has the carved doorway and the other three walls have small windows. In the center part there is a small platform where the main statue of God is placed. It is like a small room decorated with sculptures inside. The Path: - the Garbha Griha I surrounded by path to go round it. The Top: - the top of Garbha Griha is called shikhara. Water Tank: - to wash hand and feet to refresh almost in all temples one water tank is found. BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE The earliest monumental heritage was Buddhist stupas. A number of them were built in the Ganges valley in the northwest and the Deccan plateau, between 230 BC and 500 AD. These monuments are known as stupas, built in the memory of Lord Buddha were earlier used probably as burial tombs, but by 200 BC they had became dome shaped and letter becoming taller and more magnificent with different style and character related to its religion. Stupa is a domed mount near the summit of which is inset a chamber containing relics of Buddha. The summit was crowned with a small enclosure, Sinside which were set up fires of honorific. A sailing with one or more gates enclosed the structure and the preaching hall ‘chaitya’. Perhaps the pillar was aligned with it. The most famous ‘stupas’ are at Sanchi and at Bodh Gaya where Buddha achieved the enlightenment. In the South the ‘stupa’ at Amravati and Nagarjunkonda are more decorated. The ‘stupa’ of Surnath is of 7th century. INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE The Muslims brought in the culture which has left a tremendous influence on India’s art and architecture. With the passage of time, a genuine Indo-Islamic style of architecture emerged. This school combined various influences - both indigenous and imported. It consists of tombs, miners, masjids, forts and palaces. Tombs are built in the memory of the Sultan and their families. The most famous of them is the Taj Mahal built by Shahjahan in the memory of Mumtaj Mahal. It is a magnificent tomb built in marble the basic structure of Islamic architecture are towering arches set in the rectangular surface, on the four sides. A huge bulk drum raised on a drum crowns the central area. Four minarets are in the four corners. The straight sides, pointed arcades of five to seven arcs are the main characteristics of miners. It is a kind of tower. The forts and palaces are the examples of luxury and grandeur. Characteristics of Muslim architecture: - the Muslim monuments are huge and show the splendid grandeur and luxury of their patron. They are mostly built in red stone which imparts solidity to the construction. Muslim architecture introduced for the first time in India the arches. The use of miners added slimness to the huge buildings. Use of gardens around the buildings added beauty. Jharokhas are again one of the main features of Muslim architecture. Jharokhas are the delicate stone nets decorated with flora or geometrical designs. The use of precious stones demonstrated their luxury inscriptions of calligraphy from Holy Quran added delicacy and decoration to the Islamic Architecture. At the beginning the Muslim architecture was purely Persian but the later constructions is influenced by Hindu architecture. The Indo-Islamic architecture is a beautiful synthesis of Persian and Hindu architecture. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE During the British period, massive gothic architecture of the west was introduced to India. The best known British architect to work in India was Sir Edwin Lutyens, who was responsible for the master plan of New Delhi. He created an acceptable combination of mainly Mughal features and the western concepts. The Portuguese settlements at the western coast produced an architecture that was distinctly Gothic in character.


Tourism Product


"The products which satisfy tourist’s leisure, pleasure or business needs at places other than their own normal place of residence are known as Tourism Product. " Product in its generic sense can be thing, a place, a person, an event, or an organization which satisfies the needs of a person. The product which is offered should have an intrinsic value for the customer. Therefore, a product is an offering having some need satisfying capacity. This product can be exchanged with some other value, so that there accrues a mutual satisfaction for both the supplier as well as the receiver of the product. A Product could therefore be defined by its three characteristic: 1. The product must be offered 2. It should satisfy some need or needs of the buyer 3. It should be exchanged for some value. Very often the product can be a thing like the ethnic garments of Rajasthan or marble status from Jabalpur. It can also be like a place like Mumbai or Goa. It could be an organization like the World Wildlife Federation (WWF) or FOREX department of a travel agency. Yet again, it can be a person like snake charmer, dancer, a guide or a fictitious character like Walt Disney’s Mickey Mouse. Events are also tourism products like Snake Boat Race of Kerala or the Elephant Festival of Jaipur or the Kite Festival at Ahmedabad. Products of tourism also encompass activity. This could be paragliding or scuba diving or trekking.

We can divide products into tow categories: 1) Tangible products like car, TV or microwave oven and 2) Intangible products like banking, health service. Therefore, tourism products are intangible products or service having the following distinct characteristics: (i) Intangibility (ii) Inseparability (iii) Perishability (iv) Variability (v) Absence of Ownership (vi) Customer participation 

1. Intangibility: - services can not be touched or seen. What can be seen is their effect. A guide’s comment can be heard. While a travel agent provides a ticket from place A to place B. the ticket is just a piece of paper, only an entry pass for using the service. An airline provides the service of transportation. What we only can see is the aircraft which carries passenger from one place to another. The intangible characteristic poses problems of understanding and evaluating services. The services are promises which can be evaluated after or during use and not before. The difference between the products and services are products are first produced then sold and then consumed. But services first sold then produced and consumed simultaneously.

2. Inseparability: - It is not possible to separate services from the person providing the service. A guide or an interpreter has to be present to provide the service. 

3. Perishability: - Services can not be stored. Fro example hotel rooms not occupied for one particular day are lost for that day. If tourists do not do not come to see the Taj Mahal the view is lost for that day. 

4. Absence of ownership:-when a person buy a car, the ownership of the car is transferred to him but when that person hire a taxi he only buy the right to be transported to a pre-determined destination at a pre-determined price. Hotel rooms can be used but not owned by the guest. So services can be bought for consumption but the ownership remains with the person or the organization which is providing the service. 

5. Variability: - services are people based products. Services are inseparable from the person who offers it. They are produced and offered by individuals. Due to this, quality of service differs from person to person, and from time to time with the same individual. Therefore services can not be standardized. Another reason for variability of services is involvement of the guest or customer in the process of service production, delivery and consumption system. 

6. Participation of Customer: - in the service delivery system (selling – production – consumption) the customer is involved almost at every stage. A per son who wants to fly from CCU to DEL may ask any one else to book the ticket on flight but that person needs to be present on the flight physically. Otherwise the service for that particular person can not be produced and hence can not be consumed.

Classification of Tourism Products:

1. Natural: beaches, forests, mountains, lakes, deserts.

2. Man Made: fairs, festivals, monuments, paintings.

3. Symbolic: Marine Park, sanctuaries, water sports.

Needs satisfied by Tourism Products: Pleasure, recreation: festivals, wildlife, sports Relaxation, leisure: beaches, hill stations Health: Yoga, Spas Education: heritage, culture Business: conference, convention Special Interest: adventure sports

Folklore and Tourism

Tourism and Folk Dance: Conceptual Developments

Heritage tourism, as a cultural tourism segment, is “the evocation of the past and inherently about visions or understanding of the present, and a key justification for the preservation of both material cultures and traditional practices, in what they can tell contemporary communities or tourists about themselves and others. It is something of a paradox of modernity that at the same time that relentlessly seeks modern people, also hankers after something older, more authentic, or traditional”

Folklore, and its various expressions, namely folk dance, is considered as an intangible cultural heritage3(ICH) or living heritage, built over the triple conjunction of the conceptual framework: folk, nation5 and tradition6. The relationship of folklore with tourism, places it in a touristification process, as a reality in accordance to the post-modern, post-fordist and globalized society we live in.

However, tourism, as an economic activity, must appropriate culture, and namely this kind of heritage – simultaneously traditional and living, in a context “where Economics, Culture and Space are symbiotic of each other” (Santagata 2004). With the recognition that tourists are changing trying to achieve deeper and more meaningful experiences by changing their role – engaging in volunteer tourism or creative tourism, it is important to be aware that folk dance is loosing its traditional role in local/regional communities. But, in post-modernity, it’s not only the memory that is in a loosing risk, identity is too. Recognising identity as a non neutral and evolutionary process,

Folklore, as a body of expressive culture, has been developed as part of the 19th century ideology of romantic nationalism. It was linked with a sense of belonging and cohesion related to a particular local/regional community and to a particular place. In that perspective it was an element of the spirit of place. However, in post-modernity, the tendency is to use folklore with consumption ends, a context in which we explore the relation between folkloric dance and cultural tourism. In post-modernity, folk dance tends to be involved in a touristification process and many of its intrinsic characteristics are getting lost in time.

This has to do with two major aspects. The first one is the use of folk-dance as an entertainment performance oriented to tourist consumption. In the tourist industry, destinations appear as an answer to the expectations of the experience the tourist wishes to live. Folklore groups have then a tendency to acquire the shape of the tourist experience since it is not possible to perform a show without a relationship between actors and public. Any folk-dancing played today will never be a retake of the original because it has been adapted to the needs of new publics, and consequently it gains new uses, functions and values.

The second one concerns the characteristics of resident population that is urban or urbanized to a considerable extent. Consequently, it is embodied in a globalization process that eventually leads to the disintegration of local cultures. This process is related to cultural homogenization and the prevalence of mainly Western consumer culture in which everything is evaluated in terms of its market value. In this context, university students revealed some lack of interest about this kind of dancing showed in the low frequency in their attendance to folklore performances.

Places and local communities are also their cultural past which should be valued it in the present, as our respondents point out. It is our belief that only through a participated cultural and territory planning and management it will be possible to value cultural identity and consequently value the tourist experience. Planning and management should lay on a local/regional cultural dynamic concerned with educational values based on the various expressions of art. Regarding folk dance, it should be recognized that once it is closely linked to many other expressions such as music, rituals, festivities, musical instruments, objects, artefacts, ornaments, to promote the folk dance knowledge is to promote knowledge about identity.

In this context, folk dance valorisation, as a touristic resource, should be rethought over so that not only young people but also the ones of other age fringes might integrate this expression of the popular culture as their own more than for the others. This demands several educational dynamics.


Tourism Marketing

Marketing Concept Marketing is a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process. According to the British Institute of Management “Marketing is the management function which organizes and directs all those business activities involve in assessing and converting customers purchasing power into effective demand for a specific product or service and in moving the product or service to the final customer or user so as to achieve the profit target or other objectives set by the company.” Marketing are based on two principles: 1} fulfilling the community’s needs for goods and services, determining the consumer’s needs and meeting them. 2} the company must make a reasonable profit while satisfying the needs of the customer. There are three important aspects of marketing concept. 1) Customer Orientation: - this concept indicates mainly to more customers’ participation and profit making. 2) Dual-core Marketing: - this concept indicates that the first job of marketing is to identify the need of the buyer and then increase those wants through different type of promotion. 3) Integrated Marketing: - not only consumer orientation in enough but the company need to develop their infrastructure to provide best of the services. Facilities of marketing concepts:- It can give a proper view of the market. Then it will be easier to divide the market in different segments which will allow setting best promotional activity. It can help to identify the potential buyer. It can show the way to more profit through customer orientation. It also helps to identify the way to develop the quality of products or services. Marketing Process Market analysis Market research Market segmentation Product formulation Pricing Place of distribution Promotional activity the 5th ‘P’ – People, Process and Physical Factors


Sustainable Tourism

Tourism is the world’s largest industry. Although it is a “smokeless industry”, it has environmental implications. Expanding tourism has the great capacity to pollute the environment. The environmental resources exploited for tourism attract tourists because of their outstanding beauty, recreational possibilities or cultural interest. The environmental amenities which attract tourists have tended to be taken for granted. But in every tourist spot there is a carrying capacity for tourists, which will vary with the fragility of the area and with the nature of the tourist activity. Of all the modern industries, tourism has the greatest need to protect the environment of the places of natural and cultural importance – be it a monument, sanctuary or a beach.
Sustainable tourism is a kind of approach to tourism meant to make the development of tourism ecologically supportable in the long term. The very importance of sustainable tourism lies in its motives to conserve the resources and increase the value of local culture and tradition. Sustainable tourism is a responsible tourism intending to generate employment and income along with alleviating any deeper impact on environment and local culture. Definition:-
“Sustainable Tourism Development is a systematic process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of technology development and institutional changes are made consistent with present needs and without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own need.” Characteristics of Sustainable Tourism Sustainable Tourism tries to maintain the importance of local culture and tradition. Sustainable Tourism is informatory, as it doesn’t only let tourist know about the destinations but it also helps locals to know about the culture and civilisation of tourists. This kind of tourism is aimed to conserve the resources of destinations. Sustainable Tourism seeks deeper involvement of locals, which provide local people an opportunity of employment. Any development without proper planning and control, without any thought given to the environmental factors can in fact prove to be disastrous. As many agencies are involved in tourism development, coordination is very necessary among the agencies concerned. In order to develop a sustainable tourism, some key areas to consider include: sound financial planning for environmental management sensitivity to cultural and social dynamics efficient management, training and customer service consideration and inclusion of all concerned offices long term vision and good joined-up governance marketing and communications programs to showcase the positive elements Relationship between Ecotourism and Sustainable tourismEcotourism basically deals with nature based tourism, and is aimed “to conserve the environment and improves the well-being of local people”. On the other hand, sustainable tourism includes all segments of tourism, and has same function to perform as of ecotourism – to conserve the resources and increase the local cultural and traditional value. Though the goals of ecotourism and sustainable tourism are much similar, but the latter is broader and conceals within itself very many aspects and categories of tourism. Conclusion: Sustainable tourism is about refocusing and re-adapting. A balance must be found between limits and usage so that continuous changing, monitoring and planning ensure that tourism can be managed. This requires thinking long-term (10, 20+ years) and realising that change is often cumulative, gradual and irreversible. Economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development must include the interests of all stakeholders including indigenous people, local communities, visitors, industry and government.

Role of media in tourism

The role that the media is playing in the various aspects of life is becoming increasingly greater each day, especially in spheres like social interaction, and cultural and educational aspects of our life. As archaeological monuments can articulate the traditions, customs and heritage of the past, the media can in its turn clarify today's values and civilizations of the different countries and hence attempt to correct any widespread erroneous information. Both the media and archaeological monuments have messages and missions with various dimensions. The media contributes greatly in activating tourist attractions.
Before discussing the role of the media as an instrument in tourism policy, it should be noted that, broadly speaking, the relationship between tourism and the media is one of inclusion. When speaking of tourism policy that focuses on specific areas of tourism, the media become a mediator between tourism and society, meaning that they mediate in a process of conveying tourism products from the producers to the consumers.
Media communications technologies are imperative for frontline investments for sustainable globalised tourism development indicators. The powerful effects of media communications can bring sweeping changes of attitudes and behaviour among the key actors in local, national and global tourism for peace, security and sustainable development. The social, cultural, economic, political and environmental benefits of tourism would usher in monumental and historic changes in the country. As the verdict goes, the media has a social responsibility to enhance the blending of local, national and international cultural values for enriched politics, society and economy. Public communications strategy based on access to quality information and knowledge will drive the new global tourism through partnership initiatives such as: peace and security, conflict resolutions for eco tourism, quality tourism, Joint ventures, technology transfer, etc.
Development in communication is one of the best ways to go in developing eco tourism. This strategy involves the planned communication component of programmes designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of specific groups of people in specific ways through person to person communication, mass media, traditional media or community communication. It is aims at the delivery of services and the interface between service deliverers and beneficiaries where people are empowered to by informed choice, education, motivation and facilitation effecting the expected changes. This can be done by media advocacy targeting all key stakeholders involved in the tourism industry. Effective use of communication techniques can barriers and promote better uses participatory message design which combines both traditional and modern media. Like: The internet granted the freedom enjoyed by print media and common carriers such as letters, mails, and cable to the public media. Through audio streaming it is possible to enhance the reach of radio signals to any part of the world. The internet’s vast capacity enables each media house to exhaustively investigate and publish in depth analyses. Internet radio is not limited to audio as pictures, images, digital files and graphics are accessible to the users. Advertisers and their audiences can easily interact via the internet broadcasts.
The media have a crucial role to play in putting emerging destinations. The relationship between tourism and the media is vital and complex. Tourism is highly dependant on media reporting because the vast majority of travel decisions are made by people who have never seen the destination first hand for themselves. When there is bad news or a crisis the impact on tourism can be devastating. Tourists are scared away from destinations caught in the glare of round-the-clock disaster coverage, causing communities dependent on tourism to lose their source of livelihood.

History of Tourism

The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” ...