Folklore and Tourism

Tourism and Folk Dance: Conceptual Developments

Heritage tourism, as a cultural tourism segment, is “the evocation of the past and inherently about visions or understanding of the present, and a key justification for the preservation of both material cultures and traditional practices, in what they can tell contemporary communities or tourists about themselves and others. It is something of a paradox of modernity that at the same time that relentlessly seeks modern people, also hankers after something older, more authentic, or traditional”

Folklore, and its various expressions, namely folk dance, is considered as an intangible cultural heritage3(ICH) or living heritage, built over the triple conjunction of the conceptual framework: folk, nation5 and tradition6. The relationship of folklore with tourism, places it in a touristification process, as a reality in accordance to the post-modern, post-fordist and globalized society we live in.

However, tourism, as an economic activity, must appropriate culture, and namely this kind of heritage – simultaneously traditional and living, in a context “where Economics, Culture and Space are symbiotic of each other” (Santagata 2004). With the recognition that tourists are changing trying to achieve deeper and more meaningful experiences by changing their role – engaging in volunteer tourism or creative tourism, it is important to be aware that folk dance is loosing its traditional role in local/regional communities. But, in post-modernity, it’s not only the memory that is in a loosing risk, identity is too. Recognising identity as a non neutral and evolutionary process,

Folklore, as a body of expressive culture, has been developed as part of the 19th century ideology of romantic nationalism. It was linked with a sense of belonging and cohesion related to a particular local/regional community and to a particular place. In that perspective it was an element of the spirit of place. However, in post-modernity, the tendency is to use folklore with consumption ends, a context in which we explore the relation between folkloric dance and cultural tourism. In post-modernity, folk dance tends to be involved in a touristification process and many of its intrinsic characteristics are getting lost in time.

This has to do with two major aspects. The first one is the use of folk-dance as an entertainment performance oriented to tourist consumption. In the tourist industry, destinations appear as an answer to the expectations of the experience the tourist wishes to live. Folklore groups have then a tendency to acquire the shape of the tourist experience since it is not possible to perform a show without a relationship between actors and public. Any folk-dancing played today will never be a retake of the original because it has been adapted to the needs of new publics, and consequently it gains new uses, functions and values.

The second one concerns the characteristics of resident population that is urban or urbanized to a considerable extent. Consequently, it is embodied in a globalization process that eventually leads to the disintegration of local cultures. This process is related to cultural homogenization and the prevalence of mainly Western consumer culture in which everything is evaluated in terms of its market value. In this context, university students revealed some lack of interest about this kind of dancing showed in the low frequency in their attendance to folklore performances.

Places and local communities are also their cultural past which should be valued it in the present, as our respondents point out. It is our belief that only through a participated cultural and territory planning and management it will be possible to value cultural identity and consequently value the tourist experience. Planning and management should lay on a local/regional cultural dynamic concerned with educational values based on the various expressions of art. Regarding folk dance, it should be recognized that once it is closely linked to many other expressions such as music, rituals, festivities, musical instruments, objects, artefacts, ornaments, to promote the folk dance knowledge is to promote knowledge about identity.

In this context, folk dance valorisation, as a touristic resource, should be rethought over so that not only young people but also the ones of other age fringes might integrate this expression of the popular culture as their own more than for the others. This demands several educational dynamics.


Tourism Marketing

Marketing Concept Marketing is a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process. According to the British Institute of Management “Marketing is the management function which organizes and directs all those business activities involve in assessing and converting customers purchasing power into effective demand for a specific product or service and in moving the product or service to the final customer or user so as to achieve the profit target or other objectives set by the company.” Marketing are based on two principles: 1} fulfilling the community’s needs for goods and services, determining the consumer’s needs and meeting them. 2} the company must make a reasonable profit while satisfying the needs of the customer. There are three important aspects of marketing concept. 1) Customer Orientation: - this concept indicates mainly to more customers’ participation and profit making. 2) Dual-core Marketing: - this concept indicates that the first job of marketing is to identify the need of the buyer and then increase those wants through different type of promotion. 3) Integrated Marketing: - not only consumer orientation in enough but the company need to develop their infrastructure to provide best of the services. Facilities of marketing concepts:- It can give a proper view of the market. Then it will be easier to divide the market in different segments which will allow setting best promotional activity. It can help to identify the potential buyer. It can show the way to more profit through customer orientation. It also helps to identify the way to develop the quality of products or services. Marketing Process Market analysis Market research Market segmentation Product formulation Pricing Place of distribution Promotional activity the 5th ‘P’ – People, Process and Physical Factors


Sustainable Tourism

Tourism is the world’s largest industry. Although it is a “smokeless industry”, it has environmental implications. Expanding tourism has the great capacity to pollute the environment. The environmental resources exploited for tourism attract tourists because of their outstanding beauty, recreational possibilities or cultural interest. The environmental amenities which attract tourists have tended to be taken for granted. But in every tourist spot there is a carrying capacity for tourists, which will vary with the fragility of the area and with the nature of the tourist activity. Of all the modern industries, tourism has the greatest need to protect the environment of the places of natural and cultural importance – be it a monument, sanctuary or a beach.
Sustainable tourism is a kind of approach to tourism meant to make the development of tourism ecologically supportable in the long term. The very importance of sustainable tourism lies in its motives to conserve the resources and increase the value of local culture and tradition. Sustainable tourism is a responsible tourism intending to generate employment and income along with alleviating any deeper impact on environment and local culture. Definition:-
“Sustainable Tourism Development is a systematic process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of technology development and institutional changes are made consistent with present needs and without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own need.” Characteristics of Sustainable Tourism Sustainable Tourism tries to maintain the importance of local culture and tradition. Sustainable Tourism is informatory, as it doesn’t only let tourist know about the destinations but it also helps locals to know about the culture and civilisation of tourists. This kind of tourism is aimed to conserve the resources of destinations. Sustainable Tourism seeks deeper involvement of locals, which provide local people an opportunity of employment. Any development without proper planning and control, without any thought given to the environmental factors can in fact prove to be disastrous. As many agencies are involved in tourism development, coordination is very necessary among the agencies concerned. In order to develop a sustainable tourism, some key areas to consider include: sound financial planning for environmental management sensitivity to cultural and social dynamics efficient management, training and customer service consideration and inclusion of all concerned offices long term vision and good joined-up governance marketing and communications programs to showcase the positive elements Relationship between Ecotourism and Sustainable tourismEcotourism basically deals with nature based tourism, and is aimed “to conserve the environment and improves the well-being of local people”. On the other hand, sustainable tourism includes all segments of tourism, and has same function to perform as of ecotourism – to conserve the resources and increase the local cultural and traditional value. Though the goals of ecotourism and sustainable tourism are much similar, but the latter is broader and conceals within itself very many aspects and categories of tourism. Conclusion: Sustainable tourism is about refocusing and re-adapting. A balance must be found between limits and usage so that continuous changing, monitoring and planning ensure that tourism can be managed. This requires thinking long-term (10, 20+ years) and realising that change is often cumulative, gradual and irreversible. Economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development must include the interests of all stakeholders including indigenous people, local communities, visitors, industry and government.

Role of media in tourism

The role that the media is playing in the various aspects of life is becoming increasingly greater each day, especially in spheres like social interaction, and cultural and educational aspects of our life. As archaeological monuments can articulate the traditions, customs and heritage of the past, the media can in its turn clarify today's values and civilizations of the different countries and hence attempt to correct any widespread erroneous information. Both the media and archaeological monuments have messages and missions with various dimensions. The media contributes greatly in activating tourist attractions.
Before discussing the role of the media as an instrument in tourism policy, it should be noted that, broadly speaking, the relationship between tourism and the media is one of inclusion. When speaking of tourism policy that focuses on specific areas of tourism, the media become a mediator between tourism and society, meaning that they mediate in a process of conveying tourism products from the producers to the consumers.
Media communications technologies are imperative for frontline investments for sustainable globalised tourism development indicators. The powerful effects of media communications can bring sweeping changes of attitudes and behaviour among the key actors in local, national and global tourism for peace, security and sustainable development. The social, cultural, economic, political and environmental benefits of tourism would usher in monumental and historic changes in the country. As the verdict goes, the media has a social responsibility to enhance the blending of local, national and international cultural values for enriched politics, society and economy. Public communications strategy based on access to quality information and knowledge will drive the new global tourism through partnership initiatives such as: peace and security, conflict resolutions for eco tourism, quality tourism, Joint ventures, technology transfer, etc.
Development in communication is one of the best ways to go in developing eco tourism. This strategy involves the planned communication component of programmes designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of specific groups of people in specific ways through person to person communication, mass media, traditional media or community communication. It is aims at the delivery of services and the interface between service deliverers and beneficiaries where people are empowered to by informed choice, education, motivation and facilitation effecting the expected changes. This can be done by media advocacy targeting all key stakeholders involved in the tourism industry. Effective use of communication techniques can barriers and promote better uses participatory message design which combines both traditional and modern media. Like: The internet granted the freedom enjoyed by print media and common carriers such as letters, mails, and cable to the public media. Through audio streaming it is possible to enhance the reach of radio signals to any part of the world. The internet’s vast capacity enables each media house to exhaustively investigate and publish in depth analyses. Internet radio is not limited to audio as pictures, images, digital files and graphics are accessible to the users. Advertisers and their audiences can easily interact via the internet broadcasts.
The media have a crucial role to play in putting emerging destinations. The relationship between tourism and the media is vital and complex. Tourism is highly dependant on media reporting because the vast majority of travel decisions are made by people who have never seen the destination first hand for themselves. When there is bad news or a crisis the impact on tourism can be devastating. Tourists are scared away from destinations caught in the glare of round-the-clock disaster coverage, causing communities dependent on tourism to lose their source of livelihood.

History of Tourism

The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” ...