Cash Flow and Fund Flow

Cash flow simply means a factual presentation of cash inflows and outflows. This will give a clear picture of cash and cash equivalents movement during a period of time. Cash flow statement shows the actual cash flow of a company. This summaries the data of cash or cash related activities only. On the other side fund flow is broader term which never confine to cash movements only but this will show the sources & application of funds and its movements over a period of time. The major key aspect of fund flow is its working capital presentation. Business operations can easily be analysed through pointing out the movements of working capital. The key decisions of management which affect capital structure can be planned by utilising data presented in fund flow statement through making a comparison of working and fixed capital which will enable progressive growth in prospective environment. Funds flow statements shows that where the funds have been generated & where they have been utilised. Thus a fund means current assets & currents liabilities of company. If current assets are more that current liabilities that working capital of a company will be increased & if current liabilities are more that current Assets it will be decrease. Thus fund flow shows the reason of change in working capital. This is a statement of sources & uses of application of funds. The sources are funds from operation, sale of fixed assets, issue of share capital & debenture, on operating receipts.


Management information system

Definition: {1} “An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a documented report of the activities those were planned and executed.”

{2} “ It is a computer system designed to help managers plan and direct business and organizational operations.
{3} “ MIS refers broadly to a computer-based system that provides managers with the tools for organizing, evaluating and efficiently running their departments.
When information systems are designed to provide information needed for effective decision making by managers, they are called management information systems. MIS is a formal system for providing management with accurate and timely information necessary for decision making. The system provides information on the past, present and project future and on relevant events inside and outside the organization. It may be defined as a planned and integrated system for gathering relevant data, converting it in to right information and supplying the same to the concerned executives. The main purpose of MIS is to provide the right information to the right people at the right time. The Concept of management information systems originated in the 1960s and become the byword of almost all attempts to relate computer technology and systems to data processing in business. During the early 1960s, it became evident that the computer was being applied to the solution of business problem in a piecemeal fashion, focusing almost entirely on the computerization of clerical and record – keeping tasks. The concepts of management information system were developed to counteract such in efficient development and in effective use of the computer.
The MIS concept is vital to efficient and effective computer use in business of two major reasons:
[1] It serves as a systems framework for organizing business computer applications. Business applications of computers should be viewed as interrelated and integrated computer – based information systems and not as independent data processing job.
[2] In emphasizes the management orientation of electronics information processing in business. The primary goal of computer based information systems should be the processing of data generated by business operations.
An MIS provides the following advantages.
1. It Facilitates planning: MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision – making. Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations.
2. In Minimizes information overload: MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.
3. MIS Encourages Decentralization: Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures.
4. It brings Co ordination: MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organisation.
5. It makes control easier: MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance. The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost.
6. MIS assembles, process, stores, Retrieves, evaluates and disseminates the information.
Types of Information Management Systems
Document management system (DMS) The DMS is focused primarily on the storage and retrieval of self-contained electronic data resources in the document form. Generally, The DMS is designed to help the organizations to manage the creation and flow of documents through the provision of a centralized repository. The workflow of the DMS encapsulates business rules and metadata.
Content management system (CMS) The CMS assist in the creation, distribution, publishing, and management of the enterprise information. These systems are generally applicable on the online content which is dynamically managed as a website on the internet or intranet. The CMS system can also be called as ‘web content management’ (WCM).
Library management system (LMS) Library management systems facilitate the library technical functions and services that include tracking of the library assets, managing CDs and books inventory and lending, supporting the daily administrative activities of the library and the record keeping.
Records management system (RMS) The RMS are the recordkeeping systems which capture, maintain and provide access to the records including paper as well as electronic documents, efficiently and timely.
Digital imaging system (DIS) The DIS assists in automation of the creation of electronic versions of the paper documents such as PDFs or Tiffs. So created Electronic documents are used as an input to the records management systems.
Learning management system (LMS) Learning management systems are generally used to automate the e-learning process which includes the administrative process like registering students, managing training resources, creating courseware, recording results etc.
Geographic information system (GIS) The GIS are special purpose, computer-based systems that facilitate the capture, storage, retrieval, display and analysis of the spatial data.



What is Intrapreneurship?
Intrapreneurship is the practice of entrepreneurship by employees within an organization.
Difference between an entrepreneur and an intrapreneur:
An entrepreneur takes substantial risk in being the owner and operator of a business with expectations of financial profit and other rewards that the business may generate. On the contrary, an intrapreneur is an individual employed by an organization for remuneration, which is based on the financial success of the unit he is responsible for. Intrapreneurs share the same traits as entrepreneurs such as conviction, zeal and insight. As the intrapreneur continues to expresses his ideas vigorously, it will reveal the gap between the philosophy of the organization and the employee. If the organization supports him in pursuing his ideas, he succeeds. If not, he is likely to leave the organization and set up his own business.
Example of intrapreneurship: A classic case of intrapreneurs is that of the founders of Adobe, John Warnock and Charles Geschke. They both were employees of Xerox. As employees of Xerox, they were frustrated because their new product ideas were not encouraged. They quit Xerox in the early 1980s to begin their own business. Currently, Adobe has an annual turnover of over $3 billion.
Features of Intrapreneurship: Entrepreneurship involves innovation, the ability to take risk and creativity. An entrepreneur will be able to look at things in novel ways. He will have the capacity to take calculated risk and to accept failure as a learning point. An intrapreneur thinks like an entrepreneur looking out for opportunities, which profit the organization. Intrapreneurship is a novel way of making organizations more profitable where imaginative employees entertain entrepreneurial thoughts. It is in the interest of an organization to encourage intrapreneurs. Intrapreneurship is a significant method for companies to reinvent themselves and improve performance. In a recent study, researchers compared the elements related to entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial activity. The study found that among the 32,000 subjects who participated in it, five percent were engaged in the initial stages of a business start-up, either on their own or within an organization. The study also found that human capital such as education and experience is connected more with entrepreneurship than with intrapreneurship. Another observation was that intrapreneurial startups were inclined to concentrate more on business-to-business products while entrepreneurial startups were inclined towards consumer sales. Another important factor that led to the choice between entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship was age. The study found that people who launched their own companies were in their 30s and 40s. People from older and younger age groups were risk averse or felt they have no opportunities, which makes them the ideal candidates if an organization is on the look out for employees with new ideas that can be pursued.
Entrepreneurship appeals to people who possess natural traits that find start ups arousing their interest. Intrapreneurs appear to be those who generally would not like to get entangled in start ups but are tempted to do so for a number of reasons. Managers would do well to take employees who do not appear entrepreneurial but can turn out to be good intrapreneurial choices.

History of Tourism

The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” ...