Architecture of India India is the home of one of the most ancient civilization. The heritage of India is almost 5000 years old. Previously Hinduism was the main religion in this country but gradually comes Muslims, Buddhists, Jain and Christians and they helped this country to become the motherland of a proud heritage. India is truly a land of monuments. With this flow of civilization we can find different temples, mosque and other monuments throughout the country. The monumental heritage of India dates back to 3500 BC to 1500 BC, where one of the most extensive urban civilizations in the history of man grew up in the Valley of Indus River and its tributaries. This civilization consisted of a network of cities spread over an area of a million square miles. Mohenjo Daro and Harappa (both now in Pakistan) were the most important among several walled cities renowned for their well planned streets, covered drains, great baths. The buildings of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa are the oldest examples of subcontinental architecture. Other examples are Kalibangan at Rajasthan, Lothal in Gujrat and Ropar in Punjab. The monuments of India could be divided in few categories. HINDU ARCHITECTURE Hinduism is the oldest religion which prevailed throughout India. We can find heritage monuments of Hinduism every nuke and corner of the country. Hindu temples are mainly two types – 1. Mandap shaped and 2. Meru shaped. Mandap shaped temples are largely found in south India in which the temples are built as a tent. Meru shaped temples are mainly found in central and northern India. The temple is built in the shape of meru – the sacred mountain. The top is pointed towards to the space representing moksha. Both the types follow a basic structure which is almost same throughout India. The Parts of Temple. Gate (Gopuram):- in every temple we find four gates in four directions. The main gate always faces towards east or west. These gates are decorated with beautiful sculptures. Platform (Mandap):- it is the platform in front of the main part of the temple with numerous pillars supporting the ceiling. The doorway slab: - it is the boundary line between the platform and Garbha Griha. Garbha Griha: - it is the main part of the temple built in the center of premises. The front wall has the carved doorway and the other three walls have small windows. In the center part there is a small platform where the main statue of God is placed. It is like a small room decorated with sculptures inside. The Path: - the Garbha Griha I surrounded by path to go round it. The Top: - the top of Garbha Griha is called shikhara. Water Tank: - to wash hand and feet to refresh almost in all temples one water tank is found. BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE The earliest monumental heritage was Buddhist stupas. A number of them were built in the Ganges valley in the northwest and the Deccan plateau, between 230 BC and 500 AD. These monuments are known as stupas, built in the memory of Lord Buddha were earlier used probably as burial tombs, but by 200 BC they had became dome shaped and letter becoming taller and more magnificent with different style and character related to its religion. Stupa is a domed mount near the summit of which is inset a chamber containing relics of Buddha. The summit was crowned with a small enclosure, Sinside which were set up fires of honorific. A sailing with one or more gates enclosed the structure and the preaching hall ‘chaitya’. Perhaps the pillar was aligned with it. The most famous ‘stupas’ are at Sanchi and at Bodh Gaya where Buddha achieved the enlightenment. In the South the ‘stupa’ at Amravati and Nagarjunkonda are more decorated. The ‘stupa’ of Surnath is of 7th century. INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE The Muslims brought in the culture which has left a tremendous influence on India’s art and architecture. With the passage of time, a genuine Indo-Islamic style of architecture emerged. This school combined various influences - both indigenous and imported. It consists of tombs, miners, masjids, forts and palaces. Tombs are built in the memory of the Sultan and their families. The most famous of them is the Taj Mahal built by Shahjahan in the memory of Mumtaj Mahal. It is a magnificent tomb built in marble the basic structure of Islamic architecture are towering arches set in the rectangular surface, on the four sides. A huge bulk drum raised on a drum crowns the central area. Four minarets are in the four corners. The straight sides, pointed arcades of five to seven arcs are the main characteristics of miners. It is a kind of tower. The forts and palaces are the examples of luxury and grandeur. Characteristics of Muslim architecture: - the Muslim monuments are huge and show the splendid grandeur and luxury of their patron. They are mostly built in red stone which imparts solidity to the construction. Muslim architecture introduced for the first time in India the arches. The use of miners added slimness to the huge buildings. Use of gardens around the buildings added beauty. Jharokhas are again one of the main features of Muslim architecture. Jharokhas are the delicate stone nets decorated with flora or geometrical designs. The use of precious stones demonstrated their luxury inscriptions of calligraphy from Holy Quran added delicacy and decoration to the Islamic Architecture. At the beginning the Muslim architecture was purely Persian but the later constructions is influenced by Hindu architecture. The Indo-Islamic architecture is a beautiful synthesis of Persian and Hindu architecture. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE During the British period, massive gothic architecture of the west was introduced to India. The best known British architect to work in India was Sir Edwin Lutyens, who was responsible for the master plan of New Delhi. He created an acceptable combination of mainly Mughal features and the western concepts. The Portuguese settlements at the western coast produced an architecture that was distinctly Gothic in character.
"The products which satisfy tourist’s leisure, pleasure or business needs at places other than their own normal place of residence are known as Tourism Product. " Product in its generic sense can be thing, a place, a person, an event, or an organization which satisfies the needs of a person. The product which is offered should have an intrinsic value for the customer. Therefore, a product is an offering having some need satisfying capacity. This product can be exchanged with some other value, so that there accrues a mutual satisfaction for both the supplier as well as the receiver of the product. A Product could therefore be defined by its three characteristic: 1. The product must be offered 2. It should satisfy some need or needs of the buyer 3. It should be exchanged for some value. Very often the product can be a thing like the ethnic garments of Rajasthan or marble status from Jabalpur. It can also be like a place like Mumbai or Goa. It could be an organization like the World Wildlife Federation (WWF) or FOREX department of a travel agency. Yet again, it can be a person like snake charmer, dancer, a guide or a fictitious character like Walt Disney’s Mickey Mouse. Events are also tourism products like Snake Boat Race of Kerala or the Elephant Festival of Jaipur or the Kite Festival at Ahmedabad. Products of tourism also encompass activity. This could be paragliding or scuba diving or trekking.
We can divide products into tow categories: 1) Tangible products like car, TV or microwave oven and 2) Intangible products like banking, health service. Therefore, tourism products are intangible products or service having the following distinct characteristics: (i) Intangibility (ii) Inseparability (iii) Perishability (iv) Variability (v) Absence of Ownership (vi) Customer participation
1. Intangibility: - services can not be touched or seen. What can be seen is their effect. A guide’s comment can be heard. While a travel agent provides a ticket from place A to place B. the ticket is just a piece of paper, only an entry pass for using the service. An airline provides the service of transportation. What we only can see is the aircraft which carries passenger from one place to another. The intangible characteristic poses problems of understanding and evaluating services. The services are promises which can be evaluated after or during use and not before. The difference between the products and services are products are first produced then sold and then consumed. But services first sold then produced and consumed simultaneously.
2. Inseparability: - It is not possible to separate services from the person providing the service. A guide or an interpreter has to be present to provide the service.
3. Perishability: - Services can not be stored. Fro example hotel rooms not occupied for one particular day are lost for that day. If tourists do not do not come to see the Taj Mahal the view is lost for that day.
4. Absence of ownership:-when a person buy a car, the ownership of the car is transferred to him but when that person hire a taxi he only buy the right to be transported to a pre-determined destination at a pre-determined price. Hotel rooms can be used but not owned by the guest. So services can be bought for consumption but the ownership remains with the person or the organization which is providing the service.
5. Variability: - services are people based products. Services are inseparable from the person who offers it. They are produced and offered by individuals. Due to this, quality of service differs from person to person, and from time to time with the same individual. Therefore services can not be standardized. Another reason for variability of services is involvement of the guest or customer in the process of service production, delivery and consumption system.
6. Participation of Customer: - in the service delivery system (selling – production – consumption) the customer is involved almost at every stage. A per son who wants to fly from CCU to DEL may ask any one else to book the ticket on flight but that person needs to be present on the flight physically. Otherwise the service for that particular person can not be produced and hence can not be consumed.
Classification of Tourism Products:
1. Natural: beaches, forests, mountains, lakes, deserts.
2. Man Made: fairs, festivals, monuments, paintings.
3. Symbolic: Marine Park, sanctuaries, water sports.
Needs satisfied by Tourism Products: Pleasure, recreation: festivals, wildlife, sports Relaxation, leisure: beaches, hill stations Health: Yoga, Spas Education: heritage, culture Business: conference, convention Special Interest: adventure sports
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