Medical tourism or health tourism is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of traveling across international borders to obtain health care. Such services typically include elective procedures as well as complex specialized surgeries such as joint replacement (knee/hip), cardiac surgery, dental surgery and cosmetic surgeries. However, virtually every type of health care, including psychiatry, alternative treatments, and convalescent care is also available. Over 50 countries have identified medical tourism as a national industry. However, accreditation and other measures of quality vary widely across the globe, and there are risks and ethical issues that make this method of accessing medical care controversial. Also, some destinations may become hazardous for medical tourists to contemplate. The concept of medical tourism is not a new one. The first recorded instance of medical tourism dates back thousands of years to when Greek pilgrims traveled from all over the Mediterranean to the small territory in the Saronic Gulf called Epidauria. This territory was the sanctuary of the healing god Asklepios. Epidauria became the original travel destination for medical tourism. Spa towns and sanitariums may be considered an early form of medical tourism. In eighteenth century England, for example, medtrotters visited spas because they were places with supposedly health-giving mineral waters, treating diseases from gout to liver disorders and bronchitis. India’s medical tourism sector is expected to experience an annual growth rate of 30%, making it a Rs. 9,500-crore industry by 2015. Estimates of the value of medical tourism to India go as high as $2 billion a year by 2012. Advantages for medical tourists include reduced costs, the availability of latest medical technologies and a growing compliance on international quality standards, as well as the fact that foreigners are less likely to face language barriers in India. The Indian government is taking steps to address infrastructure issues that hinder the country's growth in medical tourism. Most estimates claim treatment costs in India start at around a tenth of the price of comparable treatment in America or Britain. The most popular treatments sought in India by medical tourists are alternative medicine, bone-marrow transplant, cardiac bypass, eye surgery and hip replacement. India is known in particular for heart surgery, hip resurfacing and other areas of advanced medicine. The south Indian city of Chennai has been declared India's Health Capital, as it nets in 45% of health tourists from abroad and 30-40% of domestic health tourists. Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India is planning to extend its Market Development Assistance (MDA) scheme to cover Joint Commission International (JCI) and National Accreditation Board of Hospitals (NABH) certified hospitals. A policy announcement of this effect is likely soon. India is quickly becoming a hub for medical tourists seeking quality healthcare at an affordable cost. Nearly 4,50,000 foreigners sought medical treatment in India last year with Singapore not too far behind and Thailand in the lead with over a million medical tourists. As the Indian healthcare delivery system strives to match international standards the Indian healthcare industry will be able to tap into a substantial portion of the medical tourism market. Already 13 Indian hospitals have been accredited by the Joint Commission International (JCI). Accreditation and compliance with quality expectations are important since they provide tourists with confidence that the services are meeting international standards. Reduced costs, access to the latest medical technology, growing compliance to international quality standards and ease of communication all work towards India’s advantage. It is not uncommon to see citizens of other nations seek high quality medical care in the US over the past several decades; however in recent times the pattern seems to be reversing. As healthcare costs in the US are rising, price sensitivity is soaring and people are looking at medical value travel as a viable alternative option. In the past the growth potential of the medical travel industry in India has been hindered by capacity and infrastructure constraints but that situation is now changing with strong economic progress in India as well as in other developing nations. With more and more hospitals receiving JCI accreditations outside the US, concerns on safety and quality of care are becoming less of an issue for those choosing to travel for medical treatment at an affordable cost. The combined cost of travel and treatment in India is still a fraction of the amount spent on just medical treatment alone in many western countries. In order to attract foreign patients many Indian hospitals are promoting their international quality of healthcare delivery by turning to international accreditation agencies to standardize their protocols and obtain the required approvals on safety and quality of care.
Travel agency is a retail business, that sells travel related products and services to customers, on behalf of suppliers, such as airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, sightseeing tours and package holidays that combine several products. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists, most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel only. There are also travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located. As the name implies, a travel agency's main function is to act as an agent, that is to say, selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. Consequently, unlike other retail businesses, they do not keep a stock in hand. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase. The holiday or ticket is supplied to them at a discount. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent. This is known as the commission. A British travel agent would consider a 10-12% commission as a good arrangement. In some countries, airlines have stopped giving commission to travel agencies. Therefore, travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee, per sale. However, some companies still give them a set percentage for selling their product. Major tour companies can afford to do this; because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate, they still come out better than if they sell a hundred trips at a higher rate. This process benefits both parties. Other commercial operations are undertaken, especially by the larger chains. These can include the sale of in-house insurance, travel guide books and timetables, car rentals, and the services of an on-site Bureau de change, dealing in the most popular holiday currencies. The majority of travel agents have felt the need to protect themselves and their clients against the possibilities of commercial failure, either their own or a supplier's. They will advertise the fact that they are surety bonded, meaning in the case of a failure, the customers is guaranteed either an equivalent holiday to that which they have lost or if they prefer a refund. Many British and American agencies and tour operators are bonded with the International Air Transport Association (IATA), for those who issue air tickets, Air Travel Organisers' Licensing (ATOL) for those who order tickets in, the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) or the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA), for those who sell package holidays on behalf of a tour company. A travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer. However, this function almost disappeared with the mass-market package holiday and some agency chains seemed to develop a 'holiday supermarket' concept, in which customers choose their holiday from brochures on racks and then book it from a counter. Again, a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the fore once more, particularly with the advent of multiple, no-frills, low-cost airlines.
Early India In ancient times, people often covered long distances on foot. For instance, Adi Sankaracharya traveled all over India. Even today it is not uncommon for people in rural areas to commute several kilometers every day. Bullock carts have been traditionally used for transport, especially in rural India. They can still be seen in many of the cities and villages. In the recent years some of the cities have banned the movement of bullock carts and other slow moving vehicles on the main roads during daytime. Palanquins or "palkee" was one of the luxurious methods used by the rich and nobles for traveling purposes. This was primarily used in the olden days to carry the deity or idol of the god (many temples have sculptures of god being carried in a palki) later on during 15th century we have references that the nobles were also using it for transport. Girls and ladies from rich families were ferried in palkee and were escorted by males riding on horses. The advent of the British saw drastic improvements in the horse carriages which were used for transport since early days. Today they are used in smaller towns and are referred as tongas or buggies are still used for tourist purposes, but horse carriages are now rarely found in India. Rickshaw and Auto Rickshaw From the early part of the century the bicycle rickshaws also became popular and are still used in rural India. They are bigger than a tricycle where two people can sit on an elevated seat at the back and a person will pedal (driver) from the front. In urban areas they have been mostly superseded by auto rickshaws. This type of transport was prevalent until 2005 in Kolkata wherein a person pulls the rickshaw. The Government of West Bengal banned these rickshaws in 2005 describing them "inhuman". But manually pulled rickshaws are still a common sight on the streets of Kolkata. An auto rickshaw is a three wheeler vehicle for hire. In metropolitan cities, 'autos' have regulated metered fares. A recent law passed prohibits auto-rickshaw-drivers from charging more than the specified fare, or charging night-fare before midnight, and also prohibits the driver from refusing to go to a particular location. Tram, Bus and Taxi The advent of the British saw trams being introduced in many cities including Mumbai and Kolkata. They are still in use in Kolkata and provide a pollution-free means of transport. The nationalised Calcutta Tramways Company has introduced buses on certain routes in order to squeeze more money out of dying business. Buses carry over 90% of public transport in Indian cities. The use of buses is very popular for all classes of society. They are a cheap and easy mode of transport. The government is encouraging the people to use the bus since it reduces the number of vehicles on the road thus reducing traffic jams. In the past ten years, many government-owned bus transport corporations have introduced various kinds of special buses like 'low-floor buses' for the disabled and 'air-conditioned buses' to attract private car owners to help decongest roads. Most of the traditional taxicabs in India are either Premier Padmini or Hindustan Ambassador cars. In recent years, cars such as Maruti Esteem, Maruti Omni, Mahindra Logan, Tata Indica and Tata Indigo have become fairly popular among taxi operators. The livery of the taxis in India varies from state-to-state. In Delhi and Maharashtra, most taxicabs have yellow-black livery while in West Bengal, taxis have yellow livery. Private taxi operators are not required to have a specific livery. However, they are required by law to be registered as commercial vehicles. According to government of India regulations, all taxis are required to have a fare-meter installed. Metro Rail Mass rapid transit systems are operational in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi. The first rapid transit system in India, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, was established in Mumbai in 1867. It transports 63 lakh (6.3 million) passengers everyday and boasts to have the highest passenger density in the world. Kolkata was the first city in India to possess a rapid transport system, the Kolkata Metro whose construction started in 1982. At present, three metro lines are operational in Delhi and more are under construction there. Rapid transit systems are also under construction in Hyderabad and Bengaluru. To decongest Mumbai's growing traffic, a metro system is under construction. Rapid transit systems are proposed in NOIDA, Goa, Thane, Pune, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Amritsar and Kochi. Mumbai will soon be one of the three cities in India to have a monorail network, the Mumbai Monorail, which is presently under construction. There is also a monorail system being planned in the city of Kolkata. Konkan Railways is currently testing a patented. Suspended monorail project called the Skybus Metro in Margao, Goa. Railways India's rail network is the longest in the world. Trains run at an average of around 50-60 km/h, which means that it can take more than two days to get from one corner of the country to another. Rail operations throughout the country are run by the state-owned company, Indian Railways. The rail network traverses through the length and breadth of the country, covering a total length of around 63,000 km (39,000 miles). Out of this a total 16,693 km of track has been electrified till now and 12,617 km have double tracks. Indian Railways uses three types of gauges: Broad Gauge, Meter Gauge and Narrow Gauge. Broad gauge at 1.676 m is one of the widest gauge used anywhere in the world. Indian Railways is in the process of converting the entire meter gauge (14,406 km) into broad gauge in a project called Project Unigauge. Narrow gauge (3,106 km of track) with a width of 2 ft (610 mm) to 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) is restricted to very few places, mostly in hilly areas. Proposals have been made to introduce the concept of high-speed rail in India. A proposal has been made to build a Maglev track within the city of Mumbai, connecting it to the National Capital of New Delhi, as well as other parts of Maharashtra in the form of the Mumbai Maglev. Another proposal has been made to introduce a High-speed rail in India similar to that of the Japanese Shinkansen. Road Network India has a network of National Highways connecting all the major cities and state capitals. As of 2005, India has a total of 66,590 km of National Highways, of which 200 km are classified as expressways. Most highways are 2 laned; while in some better developed areas they may broaden to 4 lanes. Close to big cities, highways can even be 8 laned. The National Highways Authority of India states that: About 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by the roads. National Highways constitute only about 2% of the road network but carry about 40% of the total road traffic. Number of vehicles has been growing at an average pace of 10.16% per annum over the last five years. All the highways are metal led. In most developed states the roads are smooth, however in less developed states and in sparsely populated areas, highways are riddled with potholes. Very few of India's highways are constructed of concrete, the most notable being the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. Highways form the economic backbone of the country. Highways have facilitated development along the route and many towns have sprung up along major highways. In recent years construction has commenced on a nationwide system of multi-lane highways, including the Golden Quadrilateral and North-South and East-West Corridors which link the largest cities in India. Ports The ports are the main gateway of trade. In India about 95% of the trade by quantity and 77% by value take place through the ports. There are 12 major ports and about 180 minor and intermediate ports in India. The total amount of traffic handled at the major port in 2003-2004 was 345 Mt and the minor ports together handled about 115 Mt. The major ports are Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakapatnam, Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin, Kochi, New Mangalore, Mormugao, Navi Mumbai, Mumbai and Kandla. The distinction between major and minor ports is not based on the amount of cargo handled. The major ports are managed by port trusts which are regulated by the central government. The minor ports are regulated by the respective state governments and many of these ports are private ports or captive ports. Inland Waterways The following waterways have been declared as National Waterways till now. National Waterway 1 - Allahabad - Haldia stretch of the Ganga - Bhagirathir - Hooghly river system (1620 km) in October 1986. National Waterway 2 - Saidiya - Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river system (891 km) in September 1988. National Waterway 3 - Kollam - Kottapuram stretch of West Coast Canal (168 km) along with Champakara canal (14 km) and Udyogmandal canal (23 km) in February 1993. Domestic Air Travel India's booming economy has created a large middle-class population in India. Five years back, air travel was a dream for the majority of the Indian population. But rapid economic growth has made air travel more and more affordable in India. Air India, India's flag carrier, presently operates a fleet 135 aircraft and plays a major role in connecting India with the rest of the world. Several other foreign airlines connect Indian cities with other major cities across the globe. Jet Airways, Kingfisher Airlines, IndiGo Airlines and Air India are the most popular brands in domestic air travel in order of their market share. Of these, Jet, Indian and Kingfisher also operate overseas routes after the liberalisation of Indian Aviation. These airlines connect more than 80 cities across India. However, a large section of country's air transport system remains untapped, even though the Mumbai-Delhi air corridor was ranked 6th by the Official Airline Guide in 2007 among the world's busiest routes. India's vast unutilized air transport network has attracted several investments in the Indian air industry in the past few years. More than half a dozen low-cost carriers entered the Indian market in 2004-05.
Transportation and travel can be discussed without taking tourism into consideration, but tourism cannot thrive without travel. Transportation is an integral part of the tourism industry. It is largely due to the improvement of transportation that tourism has expanded. The advent of flight has shrunk the world, and the motor vehicle has made travel to anywhere possible. Culpan (1987) identified transportation modes and management as the “important ingredients of the international tourism system,” acknowledging that linkage by air, sea and land modes is essential for the operations as well as the availability of support services such as fuel stations, auto repair, motels and rest facilities for land travel. Transportation in tourism is most often seen as just part of the tourism system which is in charge of bringing the tourists to the destinations, a means of getting around the place and leaving it once the duration of the trip is over. Transportation system of a tourist destination has an impact on the tourism experience which explains how people travel and why they choose different forms of holiday, destination, and transport. The improvement in transportation modes plus low fares has increased the accessibility of areas once considered off-the-beaten-path. Accesses to tourist sites vary according to the nature of the site, the state of infrastructure, and the efficiency of the public transport system.
How is a Hotel marketed?
Hotel is one of the major components of tourism industry. Hotel could be marketed properly within tourists. Apart from that a hotel could be marketed to different cooperates or MNCs. Nowadays the technological development and different types of marketing strategies find out a wide market for the hotel industry. 75% of all the hotel rooms sold all over the world comes from tourism industry directly. Travel agents, tour operators etc are the main sellers of the hotel rooms. Along with that comes the walk in customers. Marketing is the key function of hotel business. It is proved that the profit entirely depends on the systematic and proper marketing. When a hotel can understand the customers need properly then only a hotel can make a successful business. Hotel marketing could be divided in 4 categories – 1) research and analysis 2) developing and fulfillment of customer need 3) advertisement and promotion and 4) monitoring and corrective measures. To imply these steps a hotel needs trained executives. They keep regular touch with the travel agents, tour operators, corporate houses, airlines, Govt. offices, clubs etc to sale their product. For promotion and advertisements hotel mainly depends with the print media and hoardings.
Adventure travel is a type of tourism, involving exploration or travel to remote, exotic and possibly hostile areas, where the traveler should "expect the unexpected". Adventure tourism is rapidly growing in popularity, as tourists seek different kinds of vacations. According to the U.S. based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel may be any tourist activity, including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interaction and engagement with nature. Adventure tourism gains much of its excitement by allowing its participants to step outside of their comfort zone. This may be from experiencing culture shock or through the performance of acts, that require significant effort and involve some degree of risk (real or perceived) and/or physical danger. This may include activities such as mountaineering, trekking, bungee jumping, mountain biking, rafting, zip-lining and rock climbing. Some obscure forms of adventure travel include disaster tourism. Other rising forms of adventure travel include social and jungle tourism. Adventure tourism India has increased in recent years due to the efforts taken by the Indian government and the Ministry of Tourism. The scope for adventure tourism in India is endless because the country has a rich diversity in terms of climate and topography. Various kinds of adventure on water, land, and air can be enjoyed in India. The ministry of tourism and culture has, in recent years, launched a campaign called ‘Incredible India!’ and this has given a tremendous boost to adventure tourism in India. The various kinds of adventure tourism in India are: Rock climbing, Skiing, Camel safari, Para gliding, Mountaineering, Rafting in white water, Trekking etc
As a kind of adventure tourism in India, rock climbing is relatively new. Due to the presence of climbing rocks in large numbers throughout the country, rock climbing as a kind of adventure tourism in India is taking off in a big way. The various places in India where tourists can go for rock climbing are Badami, Kanheri Caves, Manori Rocks, and Kabbal. Skiing in India as a kind of adventure tourism has become popular in the last decade. The country has a large number of hill stations which have excellent skiing facilities. This has given rise to skiing adventure tourism in India. The places in India where tourists can go for skiing are Manali, Shimla, Nainital, and Mussoorie.
Whitewater rafting in India is a relative newcomer in the domain of adventure tourism in India. This has been increasing due to the presence of a number of rivers, water falls, and rapids. The places where a tourist can go for whitewater rafting in India are Ganga, Alaknanda, and Bhagirathi rivers. Trekking as a part of adventure tourism India has grown recently. Many tourists are coming to India in order to go trekking in the various rugged mountains present in India.
Camel safari in India has also become very popular due to the initiatives taken by the tourist boards of some Indian states. The most famous destinations in India for camel safaris are Bikaner, Jodhpur, and Jaisalmer. Paragliding in India has developed recently and paragliding facilities are available in a lot of places in India.
Mountaineering in India is also quite popular in the arena of adventure tourism. Tourists can go to Garhwal, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir for indulging in mountaineering.
Adventure tourism India has registered a formidable growth in recent years. For this growth to continue, efforts must be taken by the government of India so that India ranks alongside international destinations for adventure tourism.
Recreation and tourism businesses and communities often make the mistake of attempting to be all things to all people. It is difficult, and risky, to develop marketing strategies for the mass market. Strategies designed for the "average" customer often result in unappealing products, prices, and promotional messages. For example, it would be difficult to develop a campground that would be equally attractive to recreational vehicle campers and backpackers or promote a property to serve both snowmobilers and nature oriented cross country skiers. Marketing is strongly based on market segmentation and target marketing.Market segmentation is the process of: (1) taking existing and/or potential customers/visitors (market) and categorizing them into groups with similar preferences referred to as "market segments;"
(2) selecting the most promising segments as "target markets;" and
(3) designing "marketing mixes," or strategies (combination of the 4 Ps), which satisfy the special needs, desires and behavior of the target markets.
There is no unique or best way to segment markets, but ways in which customers can be grouped are:
(1) location of residence---instate, out-of-state, local;
(2) demographics---age, income, family status, education;
(3) equipment ownership/use---RV's, sailboats, canoes, tents, snowmobiles;
(4) important product attributes---price, quality, quantity; and
(5) lifestyle attributes---activities, interests, opinions. To be useful, the segment identification process should result in segments that suggest marketing efforts that will be effective in attracting them and at least one segment large enough to justify specialized marketing efforts.
After segments have been identified, the business or community must select the "target markets," those segments which offer them the greatest opportunity. When determining target markets, consideration should be given to:
(1) existing and future sales potential of each segment;
(2) the amount and strength of competition for each segment;
(3) the ability to offer a marketing mix which will be successful in attracting each segment;
(4) the cost of servicing each segment; and
(5) each segment's contribution to accomplishing overall business/community objectives.
It is often wiser to target smaller segments that are presently not being served, or served inadequately, than to go after larger segments for which there is a great deal of competition.
MARKETING OBJECTIVES FOR EACH SEGMENT
Marketing objectives which contribute to the accomplishment of the overall business objectives should be established for each target market. Objectives serve a number of functions including:
(1) guidance for developing marketing mixes for different target markets;
(2) information for allocating the marketing budget between target markets;
(3) a basis for objectively evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing mixes (setting standards); and
(4) a framework for integrating the different marketing mixes into the overall marketing plan.
The target market objectives should:
(1) be expressed in quantitative terms;
(2) be measurable;
(3) specify the target market; and
(4) indicate the time period in which the objective is to be accomplished.
The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism Today, tourism is one of the largest and dynamically developing sectors of external economic activities. Its high growth and development rates, considerable volumes of foreign currency inflows, infrastructure development, and introduction of new management and educational experience actively affect various sectors of economy, which positively contribute to the social and economic development of the country as a whole. According to recent statistics, tourism provides about 10% of the world’s income and employs almost one tenth of the world’s workforce. All considered, tourism’s actual and potential economic impact is astounding. Many people emphasize the positive aspects of tourism as a source of foreign exchange, a way to balance foreign trade, an “industry without chimney”. But there are also a number of other positive and negative sides of tourism. The Positive and Negative Social and Environmental Impacts of Tourism Socially tourism has a great influence on the host societies. Tourism can be both a source of international amity, peace and understanding and a destroyer and corrupter of indigenous cultures, a source of ecological destruction, an assault of people’s privacy, dignity, and authenticity. Here are possible positive effects of tourism: • Developing positive attitudes towards each other • Learning about each other’s culture and customs • Reducing negative perceptions and stereotypes • Developing friendships • Developing pride, appreciation, understanding, respect, and tolerance for each other’s culture • Increasing self-esteem of hosts and tourists • Psychological satisfaction with interaction So, social contacts between tourists and local people may result in mutual appreciation, understanding, tolerance, awareness, learning, family bonding respect, and liking. Residents are educated about the outside world without leaving their homes, while their visitors significantly learn about a distinctive culture. Local communities are benefited through contribution by tourism to the improvement of the social infrastructure like schools, libraries, health care institutions, internet cafes, and so on. Besides, if local culture is the base for attracting tourists to the region, it helps to preserve the local traditions and handicrafts which maybe were on the link of the extinction. On the other side tourism can increase tension, hostility, and suspicion. Claims of tourism as a vital force for peace are exaggerated. In this context economic and social impacts on the local community depend on how much of the incomes generated by tourists go to the host communities. In most all-inclusive package tours more than 80% of travellers’ fees go to the airlines, hotels and other international companies, not to local businessmen and workers. On the other hand large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors and rarely employ local staff for senior management positions, preventing local farmers and workers from reaping the benefit of their presence. Tourism has the power to affect cultural change. Successful development of a resource can lead to numerous negative impacts. Among these are overdevelopment, assimilation, conflict, and artificial reconstruction. While presenting a culture to tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even destroy it. The point is to promote tourism in the region so that it would both give incomes and create respect for the local tradition and culture. There are also both negative and positive impacts of tourism on the local ecology. Tourism often grows into mass-tourism. It leads to the over consumption, pollution, and lack of resources. Conclusion Thus, the preceding paragraphs show that the impact of tourism on local communities can be both positive and negative, whether it comes to economic, social, or environmental effects. It depends to which extent tourism is developed in a particular region. Every region has its bearing capacity, that is to say the limit of the incoming influence that does not harm the host community. If we overcome that limit negative impacts of tourism will follow.
E: Enterprising capacity N: Needs for Achievement T: Target R: Risk E: Experience
P: Planning R: Resource E: Endurance N: Novel Innovativeness E: Expedient U: Understanding R: Resolution Who is an Entrepreneur:-
An entrepreneur is a person who is an innovator, a risk taker, a resource assembler, an organization builder. He introduce new ideas, new activities, coordinates the factors of production and decides how the business shall run. He anticipates the future trend of demand and price. He has vision, originality of thoughts and ability to take calculated risk. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession of an enterprise, or venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome. It is an ambitious leader who combines land, labour, and capital to create and market new goods or services. An entrepreneur is an organizer, singly or in partnership, who takes risks in creating, investing in, and developing a firm from its inception through to hoped-for profitability as goods and services are marketed.
What is Entrepreneurship? Many definitions of entrepreneurship can be found in the literature describing business processes. The earliest definition of entrepreneurship, dating from the eighteenth century, used it as an economic term describing the process of bearing the risk of buying at certain prices and selling at uncertain prices. Other, later commentators broadened the definition to include the concept of bringing together the factors of production. This definition led others to question whether there was any unique entrepreneurial function or whether it was simply a form of management. Early this century, the concept of innovation was added to the definition of entrepreneur-ship. This innovation could be process innovation, market innovation, product innovation, factor innovation, and even organisational innovation. Later definitions described entrepreneurship as involving the creation of new enterprises and that the entrepreneur is the founder. Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. In simple words ‘Doing new things or doing things that are already done, in a new way is a simple definition of Entrepreneurship.’
Types of Entrepreneur:- 1} Innovative Entrepreneur 2} Adoptive or Imitative Entrepreneur 3} Fabian Entrepreneur 4} Drone Entrepreneur 5} Solo operator 6} Active partners 7} Inventors 8} Challengers 9} Byers 10} Life-timers Philosophy of Entrepreneurship:- 1. Ability to take calculated risk 2. Willingness to accept responsibilities 3. Goal orientedness 4. Personal Growth 5. Acceptable results are more important than perfect result 6. Failure must be accepted as learning process Functions of an Entrepreneur:- 1. Entrepreneur manages business and take decisions 2. He studies the market and select the business 3. He selects plant-size and plant-site 4. He organizes sales and marketing 5. He promotes new inventions 6. He coordinates different factors of production 7. He arranges raw-materials, machinery and finance 8. He employs labours 9. He deals with Govt. departments 10. He decide pricing policies 11. He distributes wages of labours and interests to capitalist etc. Characteristics of Entrepreneur:- 1. The entrepreneur has an enthusiastic vision, the driving force of an enterprise. 2. The entrepreneur's vision is usually supported by an interlocked collection of specific ideas not available to the marketplace. 3. The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear; however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving. 4. The entrepreneur promotes the vision with enthusiastic passion. 5. With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur develops strategies to change the vision into reality. 6. The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. 7. Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. 8. An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker. 9. An entrepreneur has inspiration, motivation and sensibility.
Literally translated a gharana basically means a family. The style of that gharana means the style initiated by a particular family of musicians By and large the nomenclature of the gharana or style is related to the city/town in which the initiating musician resided such as Rampur, Gwalior, Patiala Kirana, etc. On the other hand when a particular musician added an outstanding dimension to a perticular style of Vocal music, instrumental music or Dance, then his gharana is known by his name. E.g. lmdadkhanj or Vilayatkhni gharana or Pandit Ravishankarji’s style of sitar playing, etc. In essence, a gharana is established through the medium of specialization. Any musical performance can be divided into the “matter” of music (what you play) and the “manner” of playing (how you play). The emotional content establishes certain amount of specialization to distinguish one gharana from the other. Kirana is basically ‘Bhakti or ‘Shanta’ rasa oriented, Patiala could be ‘Shringar’ rasa based, and Agra could be ‘Vira’ rasa based and so on. It would not be appropriate to say that a gharana projects only one basic rasa - In fact, the rendition is not oriented only to a particular rasa and utilizes the elements of several rasa-s while emphasizing one basic rasa. The importance and therefore the length of different stages of raga presentation i.e., alap, bandish, tan-s, etc., could be governed by the undercurrent of the basic rasa that the particular gharana emphasizes. Both in Agra gharana and Patiala gharana the alap form is relatively shorter. Gharana-s like Jaipur, Patiala, Agra, etc., gives significant importance and emphasis to the tan portion of a presentation Specific raga-s becomes favourites of different gharanas depending upon their mood. Over the period, raga-s like Darbari, Abhogi,, etc., are favourites of Kirana gharana musicians while intricate raga-s like Sawani, Goud-Maihar, Nat, etc., are favoured by the Jaipur gharana musicians. But this is not a basic or fundamental evaluation. A Supplementary of specialization in using the technique of voice production could be the manner in which the fluidity and the ornamental phrases like Murki-s etc. are relied upon by the Performing musicians belonging to different gharana-s. These remarks are no doubt related to Vocal music traditions of Gharanas. But the same remarks with slight modifications can be applied to instrumental music forms as well. Major Styles of sitar playing definitely express their own and individual approach, resulting into specialised renditions.
Gwalior Gharana (founder Ustad Hassu Khan, Ustad Haddu Khan) Most authorities agree that this is the oldest of the khayal gharana-s. The gharana is well-known for its full repertoire as the followers of this school are taught and know a rich collection of composition-types. Bada and chota khayal, thumri, tappa, tarana, bhajan, have been enumerated. The only omission seems to be the dhrupad. In each song-type, singers are also expected to know a reasonably large number of compositions. The gharana concentrates on aam or known raga-s, that is, those which are in general circulation and may not easily be described as rare. However, it is also suggested that the gharana has many rare raga-s in its repertoire but it tends to treat them more as varieties of some known raga than as independent entities
Jaipur Gharana (founder Ustad Abdul Karim Khan, Ustad Aladiya Khan) Jaipur gharana is well-known for its penchant for rare raga-s. However in the majority of the cases these ragas are rendered with great authority and sureness of touch. It is, therefore, inevitable that the music made by the gharana is replete with intricate patterns. Its music moves more due to the high intellectual content than emotive quality. It may be on account of its dhrupad-orientation but the gharana seems to concentrate on khayal alone. There does not appear to be any room for forms such as thumri, tarana, sadra, tapkhayal, and ashtapadi in its repertoire. However, in spite of its single-minded devotion to khayal, the gharana does not lack variety because of its amazingly large store of rare raga-s.
Agra Gharana (founder Haji Sujan Khan, Ustad Gagghe Khuda Baksh) Agra was an important part of the Braj Bhumi, the land of Shri Krishna and the Bhakti and Sufi saints like Sur Das, Raskhan and others. Sujan Singh Tomar, was the founder of the Agra Gharana of music. He composed seven hundred Dhrupad songs with their Ragas. The members of his family and his successors became famous as the Dhrupadye or the singers of Dhrupad. The Kheyal is another technique of the North Indian Music in which the Agra Gharana excelled. The Agra Gharana of music was continued by the sons and grandsons and the numerous disciples of Sujan Khan. The gharana adopts a kind of voice-production which relies on a flatter variation of the vowel-sound 'a'. The gharana enjoys a rich repertoire of composition-types and bada khayal chota kliayal, dhrupad, dhamar, sadra, thumri, tarana can easily be enumerated.
Kirana Gharana (founder abdul Karim Khan, Ustad Abdul Wahid Khan) The fourth major gharana of khayal is of recent origin, but neither in impact nor in spread is it less effective than the other three. The main feature it exhibits is a melodious use of voice with a kind of 'o' vowel sound imposed on it throughout the alap-s. This rounded articulation obviously makes the singers' voices more resonant, an acoustic fact of some importance. To sustain resonance in singing, the gharana falls back on a profuse use of bol-alap-s, that is, it uses words for elaborating melodic ideas. It is common experience that to vocalize with consonants rather than vowels is easier as well as more effective in many cases, because the former requires less breath and, hence, is easier to control.
Benaras Gharana (founder Pandit Gopal Sharma) Benaras thumri is usually equated to the bol banav thumri. The gharana borrows many features of folk songs of the areas adjoining Uttar Pradesh. The Benaras thumri is sung in tala-s, such as deepchandi, dadra, and addha, which are also commonly used by other gharana-s. However, the Benaras treatment is full of poise and restraint, and the tempo is slightly slower. The raga-s too are common to many gharana-s but the treatment in the Benaras school is more serious in keeping with the general tenor of music made.
Lucknow Gharana The gharana presents thumri-s full of delicacy and intricate embellishments. Associations of the gliarana with the art of court-dancing have certainly helped in creating a form full of the suggestion of movement, gestures, and grace. In comparison to the Benaras thumri, the Lucknow version or interpretation is more explicit in its eroticism. Possibly, the ghazal tradition as developed in the Awadh court is the source of this feature. A very distinctive contribution of the gharana is the evolution of the bandish-ki-thumri. It is a composition-type sung usually in a fast-paced teentala and an association with the dance patterns and tabla compositions accompanying it are detectable.
Patiala Gharana (founder Ustad Fateh Ali Khan) The Patiala gharana, though of comparatively recent origin, has made its mark on the musical scene early and in many ways. The chief feature of the thumri in the school is its incorporation of the tappa ang (tappa aspect) from the Punjab region. Thus, the gharana immediately makes its presence felt as a fresh departure from the khayal-dominated Benaras and the dance-oriented Lucknow thumri-s. These thumri-s dazzle on account of their imaginative and extremely swift movements. Of equal importance is the intricacy of tonal patterns - a special mark of tappa. The Patiala thumri is also influenced by folk tunes of the region, which are in Pahadi, and its multiple varieties. The descending and lyrical tonal patterns associated with the Heer songs of the region are known for their moving quality and Patiala thumri has certainly benefited from this regional source.
Some other Gharanas are:- Delhi Gharana, Indore Gharana, Ramdasi Gharana, Rampur Gharana, Bishnupur Gharana, Lahore Gharana, Dagar Gharana etc.
Classical Dances of India Indian dances are an ancient art form whose beginning can be traced to 'Natya Veda'. It is based on Natya Veda. Bharat has explained in detail the art of dance in Natya Shastra. Initially, the object of dance was only spiritual elevation and the performance was only to worship the God. Such dances were called 'Margi' dance. Additionally, another dance style was also common, called 'Desi' which was for public entertainment. 'Margi' and 'Desi' dances have evolved into today's classical dance forms.
Kathak Dance KATHAK is a word of Sanskrit language and it literally means story or story teller, one who reads aloud "Puranas' i.e. "Kathakar" or "Kathavachak". It is from the word Katha the word 'Kathak' developed. Learned people have said 'One who tells story is called Kathak'. It is evident that the dance Kathak relates to story (Katha) and the tradition of the story telling is quite ancient. In fact, this dance form has its origin to the period of Lord Rama. The storytellers who followed this style were called Kushilava and later on were called "Kathak'. Similarly, the story of Lord Krishna i.e. "Bhagvata" was narrated in the temples through songs and dances.
In the medieval age, when large scale destruction of temples took place, these story tellers lost their shelter and began to scatter and found refuge in the courts of Kings or Nawabs and started creating dances according to their respective tastes to establish themselves in the court, they innovated to create extraordinary effects. It is also believed that in the Muslim age, Kathak had to be totally transformed. Hindu culture was destroyed and Kathak had to absorb the court's show and sense of pleasure. In this age, Kathak style of dance emerged as a means of entertainment and sensual pleasure. In this age the "King" replaced the Lord and "Devdasis" became "Saki'. The dance imbibed Muslim literature, Ragas and Beats and poems like Ghazals. The three houses of Kathak i.e. Lucknow, Jaipur and Banares were founded.
During the declining phase of Muslim rule, Nawab Wajid Ali Shah and thereafter Nawab Rampur, Raja Chakradhar Singh etc. made their contribution to keep this dance form alive but generally during the European age, this dance form almost became extinct. However, during last few decades, the attitude of society towards Kathak has undergone a change and with the establishment of music institutes, the image of Kathak has improved. As a result, boys and girls of cultured families were attracted to this dance form.
Kathak is the classical dance form of Northern India. In the performance of Kathak, the artists enjoy a lot of freedom usually not available in other dance forms. Each Kathak dancer begins the dance in his or her unique way and organizes the performance according to his preference. Women usually wear Lehnga Choli and Dupatta while performing Kathak. Male dancers wear Churidar Paijama, Kurta and Angarkha and tie a Dupatta in the waist.
Bharat Natyam Bharat Natyam is a popular classical dance form of South India. It is related to Devdasis. For the beautiful expression and artistic presentation of Bharat Natyam, much credit goes to Devdasis. The teachers of Bharat Natyam called Nattuvan were considered to be acharyas.
Being naturally religious, in southern provinces Bharat Natyam was popularised by Devdasis in temples. These Devdasis could be divided into three categories: - Rajdasi, Devdasi & Swadasi Bharat Natyam is considered famous for its spectacular speed and expressions through body movements.The presentation of the dance can be divided into following seven sequential stages: 1. Allaripu 2. Jethiswaram 3. Shabdam 4. Varnam 5. Padam 6. Tillana 7. Shlokam Costume of Bharat Natyam: The dancers wear tight dhoti in which an attractive dhoti with pleats is joined in the centre; which at the time of foot work spreads like peacock feathers between the legs. Patka and kamarbandh add further attraction to the costume. Men usually wear a Patka and Kanthi (a type of necklace) while women wear choli and special garlands.
Kathakali This dance is particularly popular in Kerala state of South India. It has a beautiful combination of music, story and emoting. In this dance form, 'emoting' has dominance. The dance features stories of Ramayana, Mahabharat or any other mythological story. The actor playing the role comes on the stage and enacts according to the story while in the back ground, musical compositions are played to explain the Bhavas.
Kathakali dance is characterised with the dominance of 'Tandava' element and Veerta (Bravery), Adbhut (spectacular) and Shant (peace) rasas are also established. The body movements are complex and the number of mudras also is many more than those found in other classical dance form. In this style of dance, the Abhinay part is important. The dance begins with a prayer to God sung from behind the screen. Thereafter, the instrumentalists play together and in the same beat the dancers come on the stage and emote according to their roles through body movements.
Costume of Kathakali: In this dance costume designing and make up are of great importance. Characters wear tight jacket and colourful Ghaghara (long skirt) which remains blown. They also wear a crown according to the role whose halo may stretch upto their feet. The colour of the face is according to the role. The faces of gods are green, that of demons, red or black. Women and other minor actors have natural coloured face. The decoration and make up is according to Abhinaya.
Manipuri Dance There is folklore related to this dance that once when the Gopies were engaged in dancing with Krishna in 'Maharaas' the Natraj Shiva sought permission to witness the same. Krishna permitted him to watch the performance but only with his back facing the dancers but Shiva was so enchanted with the dance that he forgot his promise and hiding himself watched the dance. He then returned to his abode in Himalaya and decided to perform the 'Raas' with his wife Parvati. For performing 'Raas', Shiva chose a place. Sheshnag (the king of serpents) lit up this area with the 'mani' in his hood and since then the region is known as 'Manipur'.
The dance having been influenced by 'Maharaas' describes mostly the playful acts of Krishna. This dance is usually performed by girls but men are not barred from performing it. In the Manipuri dances four types of Raaslilas are performed i.e. Vasant Raas (Raas of spring season), Maharaas (Raas of full moon day), Kunj Raas (Raas of tree clusters) and Nitya Raas (Eternal Raas). This dance has a preponderance of 'Lasya' and the footwork, eyebrow movements, hand postures and body postures all imbibe 'Lasya'.
Costume: The costume of Manipuri dance is extremely, attractive and colourful. The women dancers wear a costume called 'Pulloi' A loose lehanga of bright satin or silk is worn which is called 'coomin'. It is adorned with motifs made with glass and Jari which is covered by transparent silk or peshwan. To blow the 'coomin' near the knees, bamboo sticks are placed inside in a circular form. The face of the dancer is covered with transparent silk. The hairs are raised and then tied in a knot. The shape of the knot is according to the type of Raas. The Gopis usually wear costume of red colour while Radha wears green colour.
Kuchipudi The history of Kuchipudi dance is quite old but it was recognised as a classical dance much later. Its origin is placed around 2nd century BC. Since the dance evolved in the Kuchipudi region of Andhra Pradesh, it is known as Kuchipudi dance. It is a traditional dance drama which bears distinct influence of Vaishnav sect. This dance form is also influenced by oddissi and Bharat Natyam dance styles.
The dance is usually performed in the following manner:
(a) Poorvarang: This is akin to Bhoomi puja followed by prayers to Venkateshwar.
(b) Bhamakalapam: In this stage which the dance is performed based on a story line.
(c) Shabdam: In this stage a "word' is expressed by emoting in various manners.
(d) Dashavatar: In this stage all the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu are described.
(e) Rama Pattabhishek: In this stage the story of Rama-right from his birth to ascendancy on the throne is described through the medium of dance.
(f) Tillana: In this stage dance is performed through "Tillana" which is pure beats and laya. (g) Tarangam: Tarangam are the poems composed by Narayan Tirtha describing the childhood acts of Lord Krishna. In the end there is spectacular exhibition of 'Layakari' and 'body movements' which is performed by the dancer while standing in a Thali (plate)
Costume:—the women wear sari and blouse and use waist band. Women also wear an ornamental belt in the waist and arm bands, tika and necklace. Men usually wear a dhoti, waistband and Dupatta.
Oddissi Dance Oddissi is one of the oldest classical dance forms of India. It was born in the temple of Lord Jagannath in Puri in oddissa which was always the centre of art, literature and culture in the Eastern India. The dance evolved through devdasis in the temple. It is a solo dance conforming to the roles of 'Natya Shastra' and 'Shilp Shashtra' and is performed in the following six stages :
1. The dance begins with bowing to earth and prayer to' Vighnaraj' by singing 'Mangalacharan'.
2. The next stage is 'Batunritya' initially performed at slow pace then speeded up gradually.
3. After Batunritya, prayers are offered to the Lord which are taken from Sanskrit literature.
4. Next stage is called 'Pallavi' in which hand gestures are demonstrated according to music.
5. Next stage is 'Abhinaya' which is similar to 'Padam' in Bharat Natyam or Thumri in Kathak. Expression through eyes is of much importance in 'Abhinaya'.
6. The performance is concluded with 'Tarjan' which is somewhat similar to Tarana of Kathak or Tillana of Bharatnatyam.
Costume: The women wear silk sari with a 'Lang' whose spread hangs in the front. They wear a waistband of silver; most of the ornaments are made of silver the hairs are arranged in a round knot and adorned with buds of pearls.
Mohiniattam According to some folklore, Lord Vishnu first performed 'Mohini' dance on the shores of Kerala and the same dance is popular in Kerala in some or other form and is known as 'Mohiniattam'. The origin of this dance form is attributed to the devdasis of Tamilnadu combining with the Nagyars of Kerala. While the dance of devdasis had a preponderance of Lasya, the Nagyars were skilled in emoting through facial expressions and combination of the two skills led to development of Mohiniattam style of dance in the temples. In this dance there is a distinct importance of court songs and music. The dance is performed in the following sequence.
First stage commences with 'Cholketu' in which the Lord is worshipped with prayers. It is followed by Taliswar Varnanam, Padm and Tillana. The dance is concluded with shlokam in a very interesting style. The shlokam are devotional in nature. Costume: The female dancer usually wears a white sari with a broad red border. The sari is kept upto the calves. Hairs are tied into a bun on the left side above the temple and further adorned with fresh fragrant flowers.
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Subjects of market research;- 1. Identification of customers. 2. Competition on the market. 3. Size of the market. 4. demand and supply in the market 5. acceptable price level 6. past and present trends in the market 7. number of potential buyers
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The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. The Samaveda, one of the four Vedas, describes music at length. The Samaveda was created out of Rigveda so that its hymns could be sung as Samagana; this style evolved into jatis and eventually into ragas. Indian classical music has its origins as a meditation tool for attaining self realization. All different forms of these melodies (ragas) are believed to affect various "chakras" (energy centers, or "moods") in the path of the Kundalini. However, there is little mention of these esoteric beliefs in Bharat's Natyashastra, the first treatise laying down the fundamental principles of drama, dance and music. Indian classical music has one of the most complex and complete musical systems ever developed. Like Western classical music, it divides the octave into 12 semitones of which the 7 basic notes are Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa. Indian classical music is monophonic in nature and based around a single melody line which is played over a fixed drone. The performance is based melodically on particular ragas and rhythmically on talas. Notation System Indian music is traditionally practice oriented and does not employ notations as the primary media of instruction/understanding/transmission. The rules of Indian music and compositions themselves are taught from a guru to a shishya, in person. Various Indian music schools followed notations and classifications (see Melakarta and thaat); however, the notation is regarded as a matter of taste and is not standardized. Thus there is no universal system of notation for the rest of the world to study Indian music. Scholars of Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth century were enamoured by Indian music and with no facility to record the sound they explored for some existing system that might express sounds in the composition. There were pointers to an ancient notation system which scholars had also translated into Persian; still, the complexity of Indian classical music could not be expressed in writing. Though some western scholars did record compositions in the staff notation system, Indian musicians have used a system created by Bhatkhande in the 20th century. Though more accurate, this relies on Devanagari script rather than symbols and hence is cumbersome at times. A new notation system has been proposed which uses symbols and offers instantaneous comprehension like Staff notation system. It is with standardization of a notation system that hitherto unknown compositions would see the light of day. Hindustani music Players of the tabla, a type of drum, usually keep the rhythm in Hindustani music. Another common instrument is the stringed tanpura, which is played at a steady tone (a drone) throughout the performance of the raga. This task traditionally falls to a student of the soloist, a task which might seem monotonous but is, in fact, an honour and a rare opportunity for the student who gets it. Other instruments for accompaniment include the sarangi and the harmonium. The prime themes of Hindustani music are romantic love, nature, and devotionals. Yet, Indian classical music is independent of such themes. To sing a raga any poetic phrase appropriate for the raga may be chosen and the raga would not suffer. In Hindustani music, the performance usually begins with a slow elaboration of the raga, known as alap. This can range from very long (30-40 minutes) to very short (2-3 minutes) depending on the style and preference of the musician. Once the raga is established, the ornamentation around the mode begins to become rhythmical, gradually speeding up. This section is called the drut or jor. Finally, the percussionist joins in and the tala is introduced. There is a significant amount of Persian influence in Hindustani music, in terms of both the instruments and the style of presentation. Carnatic music Carnatic music tends to be significantly more structured than Hindustani music; examples of this are the logical classification of ragas into melakarthas, and the use of fixed compositions similar to Western classical music. Carnatic raga elaborations are generally much faster in tempo and shorter than their equivalents in Hindustani music. The opening piece is called a varnam, and is a warm-up for the musicians. A devotion and a request for a blessing follows, then a series of interchanges between ragams (unmetered melody) and thaalams (the ornamentation, equivalent to the jor). This is intermixed with hymns called krithis. This is followed by the pallavi or theme from the raga. Carnatic pieces can also have notated, lyrical poems that are reproduced as such, possibly with embellishments and treatments as per the performer's ideology; these basic pieces are called compositions and are popular among those who appreciate Carnatic (especially vocal) music. Compositions usually have amble flexibility in them so as to foster creativity: it is commonplace to have same composition sung in different ways by different performers. Carnatic music is similar to Hindustani music in that it is improvised (see musical improvisation). Primary themes include worship, descriptions of temples, philosophy, nayaka-nayaki themes and patriotic songs. Tyagaraja (1759-1847), Muthuswami Dikshitar (1776-1827) and Syama Sastri (1762-1827) are known as the Trinity of Carnatic music, while Purandara Dasa (1480-1564) is often called the father of Carnatic music.
Music Love, humor, pathos, anger, heroism, terror, disgust, wonder and serenity are the Nava Rasa’s or nine basic emotions which are fundamental to all Indian aesthetics. The Raga, or musical mode, forms the basis of the entire musical event. The Raga is essentially an aesthetic rendering of the seven musical notes and each Raga is said to have a specific flavor and mood. Tala is what binds music together. It is essentially a fixed time cycle for each rendition and repeats itself after completion of each cycle. Tala makes possible a lot of improvisations between beats and allows complex variations between each cycle. With the help of the Raga, Tala and the infinite shrutis or microtones, Indian musicians create a variety of feelings. The melodious sounds of a musical rendition can evoke the innermost emotions and moods of the audience, connoisseurs and non-connoisseurs alike. Today, the Indian Musical tradition has two dominant strains: the Carnatic or South Indian music and the Hindustani or North Indian music. The Northern school of Indian Music can boast of names like Amir Khusro (13th century) and Miyan Tansen who lived in the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar in the 16th century. The great musicians of the Southern style include Venkatamakhi (17th century), Thyagaraja and Shyama Shastri. All Indian musicians belong to a particular gharana (house) or school. Each gharana has its own traditions and manner of rendition and these styles are fiercely guarded and maintained. Some of the well-known gharanas are those of Delhi, Agra, Gwalior and Jaipur.
Dance Using the body as a medium of communication, the expression of dance is perhaps the most intricate and developed, yet easily understood art form. Dance in India has seeped into several other realms like poetry, sculpture, architecture, literature, music and theatre. The earliest archaeological evidence is a beautiful statuette of a dancing girl, dated around 6000 B.C. Bharata's Natya Shastra (believed to be penned between second century B.C. and second century A.D.) is the earliest available treatise on dramaturgy. All forms of Indian classical dances owe allegiance to Natya Shastra, regarded as the fifth Veda. It is said that Brahma, the Creator, created Natya, taking literature from the Rig Veda, song from the Sama Veda, expression from the Yajur Veda and aesthetic experience from the Atharva Veda. It also contains deliberations on the different kind of postures, the mudras or hand formations and their meanings. All dance forms are thus structured around the nine rasas or emotions, hasya (happiness), krodha (anger), bhibatsa (disgust), bhaya (fear), shoka (sorrow), vira (courage), karuna (compassion), adbhuta (wonder) and shanta (serenity). Theater India has a longest and richest tradition in theatre. Origin of Indian theatre is closely related to the ancient rituals and seasonal festivities of the country. The traditional account in Natya Shastra gives a divine origin to Indian Theatre According to legend, when the world passed from the Golden Age to Silver Age, and people became addicted to sensual pleasures, and jealousy, anger, desire and greed filled their hearts. God Indra, with the rest of the gods, approached Brahma, the Creator of the Universe, and begged for a mode of recreation accessible to all classes of society. Brahma acceded to this request and decided to compose a fifth Veda on Natya. From the four Vedas he extracted the four elements of speech, song, mime and sentiment and thus created Natyaveda, the holy book of dramaturgy. He asked Indra to pass the book to those of the Gods who are skillful, learned, free from stage fright and given to hard work. As Indra pleaded the gods' inability to enact the play, Brahma looked to Bharata and revealed the fifth Veda to him by God Brahma himself. Thus, when the dramatic art was well comprehended, the first drama was enacted on the auspicious occasion of Indra's Banner Day. The Natya Shastra legend indicates an intimate relation between the idea of dancing and dramatic representation. Dance has an important role in the birth of Indian theatre. As dance is a function of life, even from the primitive to the most cultured community, drama finds a semi-religious origin from the art of dancing. Film On July 7, 1896, an agent who had brought equipment and films from France first showed his moving pictures in Bombay. That was an important day in the social and cultural history of the Indian people. The first Indian-made feature film (3700 feet long) was released in 1913. It was made by Dadasaheb Phalke and was called Raja Harishchandra. Based on a story from the Mahabharata it was a stirring film concerned with honor, sacrifice and mighty deeds. From then on many "mythologicals" were made and took India by storm. Phalke's company alone produced about a hundred films. What little remains of Indian silent cinema up to 1931 barely fills six video-cassettes in the National Film Archives of India, but it is remarkable for the way traditional "theatrical" framing (static characters, faced front on by the camera) is animated by a considerable investment in location shooting, both in natural surroundings and in the city. This is evident not only in Raja Harishchandra, but also in historical-cum-stunt films such as Diler Jigar/Gallant Hearts (SS Agarwal; 1931) and Gulaminu Patan/The Fall of Slavery (SS Agarwal; 1931), and in the international co-productions directed by Himansu Rai and the German Franz Osten. Among these, Light of Asia (1925), about the Buddha, and Shiraz (1928), about the origins of the Taj Mahal, referred to as 'Romances from India' by their producers, render "India" as a startling, exotic assemblage: scenes of ancient and medieval court life, attended by the ritual of courtly gesture, and by spectacular processions of elephants and camels, are juxtaposed with a glittering naturalism.
Natural disasters Catastrophes like floods, earthquakes, wildfires, volcanoes, avalanches, drought and diseases can have a serious effect on inbound and domestic tourism and thus on local tourism industries. The outbreak of the foot and mouth disease epidemic in England (2001), for instance, has severely affected Great Britain's inbound tourism market. Climate change Tourism not only contributes to climate change, but is affected by it as well. Climate change is likely to increase the severity and frequency of storms and severe weather events, which can have disastrous effects on tourism in the affected regions. Some of the other impacts that the world risks as a result of global warming are drought, diseases and heat waves. These negative impacts can keep tourists away from the holiday destinations. Global warming may cause: 1. Less snowfall at ski resorts, meaning a shorter skiing season. 2. Harm to vulnerable ecosystems such as rainforests and coral reefs because of rising temperatures and less rainfall. The Great Barrier Reef, which supports a US$ 640 million tourism industry, has been experiencing coral damage for the last 20 years. 3. Rising sea levels, the result of melting glaciers and polar ice. Higher sea levels will threaten coastal and marine areas with widespread floods in low-lying countries and island states, increasing the loss of coastal land. Beaches and islands that are major tourism attractions may be the first areas to be affected. 4. Increased events of extreme weather, such as tornadoes, hurricanes and typhoons. These are already becoming more prevalent in tourist areas in the Caribbean and South East Asia. Hurricane Mitch in 1998, for instance, heavily affected tourism in the Caribbean. HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION The tourism industry can contribute to conservation through: Financial contributions Direct financial contributions:- Tourism can contribute directly to the conservation of sensitive areas and habitat. Revenue from park-entrance fees and similar sources can be allocated specifically to pay for the protection and management of environmentally sensitive areas. Special fees for park operations or conservation activities can be collected from tourists or tour operators. Contributions to government revenues:- User fees, income taxes, taxes on sales or rental of recreation equipment, and license fees for activities such as hunting and fishing can provide governments with the funds needed to manage natural resources. Such funds can be used for overall conservation programs and activities, such as park ranger salaries and park maintenance. Improved environmental management and planning Sound environmental management of tourism facilities and especially hotels can increase the benefits to natural areas. Planning helps to make choices between conflicting uses, or to find ways to make them compatible. By planning early for tourism development, damaging and expensive mistakes can be prevented, avoiding the gradual deterioration of environmental assets significant to tourism. Environmental awareness raising Tourism has the potential to increase public appreciation of the environment and to spread awareness of environmental problems when it brings people into closer contact with nature and the environment. This confrontation may heighten awareness of the value of nature and lead to environmentally conscious behavior and activities to preserve the environment. Protection and preservation Tourism can significantly contribute to environmental protection, conservation and restoration of biological diversity and sustainable use of natural resources. Because of their attractiveness, pristine sites and natural areas are identified as valuable and the need to keep the attraction alive can lead to creation of national parks and wildlife parks. Tourism has had a positive effect on wildlife preservation and protection efforts, notably in Africa but also in South America, Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific. Numerous animal and plant species have already become extinct or may become extinct soon. Many countries have therefore established wildlife reserves and enacted strict laws protecting the animals that draw nature-loving tourists. As a result of these measures, several endangered species have begun to thrive again.
The quality of the environment, both natural and man-made, is essential to tourism. However, tourism's relationship with the environment is complex. It involves many activities that can have adverse environmental effects. Many of these impacts are linked with the construction of general infrastructure such as roads and airports, and of tourism facilities, including resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas. The negative impacts of tourism development can gradually destroy the environmental resources on which it depends. On the other hand, tourism has the potential to create beneficial effects on the environment by contributing to environmental protection and conservation. It is a way to raise awareness of environmental values and it can serve as a tool to finance protection of natural areas and increase their economic importance. TOURISM'S THREE MAIN IMPACT AREAS Negative impacts from tourism occur when the level of visitor use is greater than the environment's ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the world. It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natural habitat loss, increased pressure on endangered species. It often puts a strain on water resources, and it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources. Water resources Water, and especially fresh water, is one of the most critical natural resources. The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generating a greater volume of waste water. In dryer regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 liters a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use. Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources. In recent years golf tourism has increased in popularity and the number of golf courses has grown rapidly. Golf courses require an enormous amount of water every day and, as with other causes of excessive extraction of water, this can result in water scarcity. Local resources Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food, and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. Because of the seasonal character of the industry, many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating, hot water, etc.). Land degradation Important land resources include minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetland and wildlife. Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes. Direct impact on natural resources in the provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use of building materials. Forests often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing. For example, one trekking tourist in Nepal - and area already suffering the effects of deforestation - can use four to five kilograms of wood a day. POLLUTION Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry: air emissions, noise, solid waste and littering, releases of sewage, oil and chemicals, even architectural/visual pollution. Air pollution and noise Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number. One consequence of this increase in air transport is that tourism now accounts for more than 60% of air travel and is therefore responsible for an important share of air emissions. One study estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting, heating, car use, etc.) consumed by an average person yearly. (Mayer Hillman, Town & Country Planning magazine, September 1996.) Transport emissions and emissions from energy production and use are linked to acid rain, global warming and photochemical pollution. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level, especially from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to transportation energy use. And it can contribute to severe local air pollution. Some of these impacts are quite specific to tourist activities. For example, especially in very hot or cold countries, tour buses often leave their motors running for hours while the tourists go out for an excursion because they want to return to a comfortably air-conditioned bus. Noise pollution from airplanes, cars, and buses, as well as recreational vehicles such as snowmobiles and jet skis, is an ever-growing problem of modern life. In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for it humans, it causes distress to wildlife, especially in sensitive areas. For instance, noise generated by snowmobiles can cause animals to alter their natural activity patterns. Solid waste and littering In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment - rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. For example, cruise ships in the Caribbean are estimated to produce more than 70,000 tons of waste each year. Today some cruise lines are actively working to reduce waste-related impacts. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals. In mountain areas, trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment mainly in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities. Some trails in the Peruvian Andes and in Nepal frequently visited by tourists have been nicknamed "Coca-Cola trail" and "Toilet paper trail". LOSS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Biological diversity is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. The effects of loss of biodiversity: It threatens our food supplies, opportunities for recreation and tourism, and sources of wood, medicines and energy. It interferes with essential ecological functions such as species balance, soil formation, and greenhouse gas absorption. It reduces the productivity of ecosystems, thereby shrinking nature's basket of goods and services, from which we constantly draw. It destabilizes ecosystems and weakens their ability to deal with natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes, and with human-caused stresses, such as pollution and climate change. Tourism, especially nature tourism, is closely linked to biodiversity and the attractions created by a rich and varied environment. This loss of biodiversity in fact means loss of tourism potential. Introduction of exotic species Tourists and suppliers - often unwittingly - can bring in species (insects, wild and cultivated plants and diseases) that are not native to the local environment and that can cause enormous disruption and even destruction of ecosystems.
Tourism is the world’s largest industry. Although it is a “smokeless industry”, it has environmental implications. Expanding tourism has the great capacity to pollute the environment. The environmental resources exploited for tourism attract tourists because of their outstanding beauty, recreational possibilities or cultural interest. The environmental amenities which attract tourists have tended to be taken for granted. But in every tourist spot there is a carrying capacity for tourists, which will vary with the fragility of the area and with the nature of the tourist activity. Of all the modern industries, tourism has the greatest need to protect the environment of the places of natural and cultural importance – be it a monument, sanctuary or a beach.
Sustainable tourism is a kind of approach to tourism meant to make the development of tourism ecologically supportable in the long term. The very importance of sustainable tourism lies in its motives to conserve the resources and increase the value of local culture and tradition. Sustainable tourism is a responsible tourism intending to generate employment and income along with alleviating any deeper impact on environment and local culture. Definition:-
“Sustainable Tourism Development is a systematic process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of technology development and institutional changes are made consistent with present needs and without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own need.” Characteristics of Sustainable Tourism Sustainable Tourism tries to maintain the importance of local culture and tradition. Sustainable Tourism is informatory, as it doesn’t only let tourist know about the destinations but it also helps locals to know about the culture and civilisation of tourists. This kind of tourism is aimed to conserve the resources of destinations. Sustainable Tourism seeks deeper involvement of locals, which provide local people an opportunity of employment. Any development without proper planning and control, without any thought given to the environmental factors can in fact prove to be disastrous. As many agencies are involved in tourism development, coordination is very necessary among the agencies concerned. In order to develop a sustainable tourism, some key areas to consider include: sound financial planning for environmental management sensitivity to cultural and social dynamics efficient management, training and customer service consideration and inclusion of all concerned offices long term vision and good joined-up governance marketing and communications programs to showcase the positive elements Relationship between Ecotourism and Sustainable tourismEcotourism basically deals with nature based tourism, and is aimed “to conserve the environment and improves the well-being of local people”. On the other hand, sustainable tourism includes all segments of tourism, and has same function to perform as of ecotourism – to conserve the resources and increase the local cultural and traditional value. Though the goals of ecotourism and sustainable tourism are much similar, but the latter is broader and conceals within itself very many aspects and categories of tourism. Conclusion: Sustainable tourism is about refocusing and re-adapting. A balance must be found between limits and usage so that continuous changing, monitoring and planning ensure that tourism can be managed. This requires thinking long-term (10, 20+ years) and realising that change is often cumulative, gradual and irreversible. Economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development must include the interests of all stakeholders including indigenous people, local communities, visitors, industry and government.
The annual Snake boat races are a thrilling festival event held in Alappuzha, Kerala, India, just before the festival of Onam in August or September every year. These annual races feature many classes of boats, but the most spectacular event is the race between the giant Snake Boats or Chundanvallams at the annual races or Vallamkalis held on the Punnamada Backwaters at Alappuzha. The annual Snake Boat races festival held in Alappuzha, Kerala, India, is a thrilling event where giant Snake Boats compete for the prestigious Nehru Trophy. The Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, gave the trophy to the people of Alappuzha after his visit to Kerala in 1952. As Nehru arrived in Alappuzha, he was given a grand welcome, along the backwaters with hundreds of boats including swift-moving Snake Boats. As Nehru saw a demonstration of the rowers' prowess, he suggested an annual race be held and donated the Nehru Trophy to be given to the winning team. The Nehru Trophy has a silver replica of a Snake Boat set on a base. The annual Snake Boat races festival is an exciting event held in a celebratory atmosphere.
Snake Boat Festival Celebration in Kerala: Snake Boat races festivals are held in many venues in Kerala, India, but the races in Alappuzha are the best known. Teams of rowers compete for the Nehru Trophy. The Snake Boats or Chundanvallams, can seat up to 100 people. The rowers pull with all their might, sitting two in row along the length of the Snake Boat. The boats float low in the water and have a long curving stern. The prow is pointed in shape or may have a decorative knob at the end. The prow rides low in the water with the length of the Snake Boat extending behind it. Apart from rowers, the Snake boat carries a cox, and leaders who maintain the rhythm of rowing through chants, songs and exclamations. You can see the amazing Snake Boats of Kerala on Kerala tours with Kerala Backwater. The excitement of the Snake Boat Races has to be experienced to be appreciated. The snake boat races at Alappuzha have become a popular attraction for international travelers.
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